Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

33 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)948-961
Number of pages14
JournalMolecular Nutrition and Food Research
Volume57
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013

Fingerprint

metabolic syndrome
anti-inflammatory activity
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
inflammation
Polyphenols
Inflammation
Food
polyphenols
Sterculiaceae
Proanthocyanidins
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
Theobroma cacao
Cacao
Malvaceae
Laboratory Animals
chocolate
hyperlipidemia
flavanols
Dyslipidemias
monounsaturated fatty acids

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science

Cite this

@article{9dae4e017ea64518857dcf00ecd0445f,
title = "Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa",
abstract = "Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities.",
author = "Yeyi Gu and Lambert, {Joshua D.}",
year = "2013",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/mnfr.201200837",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "57",
pages = "948--961",
journal = "Molecular Nutrition and Food Research",
issn = "1613-4125",
publisher = "Wiley-VCH Verlag",
number = "6",

}

Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa. / Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D.

In: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, Vol. 57, No. 6, 01.06.2013, p. 948-961.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa

AU - Gu, Yeyi

AU - Lambert, Joshua D.

PY - 2013/6/1

Y1 - 2013/6/1

N2 - Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities.

AB - Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae) is a widely consumed food ingredient. Although typically found in high-fat, high-sugar foods such as chocolate, cocoa is rich in polyphenols, methylxanthines, and monounsaturated fatty acids. There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of cocoa and cocoa-containing foods may have beneficial effects on the health including vasodilatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Polyphenols in cocoa, including monomeric flavanols, as well as polymeric proanthocyanidins, may play a role in these observed beneficial effects. Chronic inflammation represents a potential mechanistic link between obesity and its related pathologies: insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which comprise the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we discuss the available data regarding the modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa and cocoa-derived compounds. We emphasize studies using laboratory animals or human subjects since such studies often represent the strongest available evidence for biological effects. In vitro studies are included to provide some mechanistic context, but are critically interpreted. Although the available data seem to support the anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa, further studies are needed with regard to the dose-response relationship as well as the underlying mechanisms of action. We hope this review will stimulate further research on cocoa and its anti-inflammatory activities.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84878912355&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84878912355&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/mnfr.201200837

DO - 10.1002/mnfr.201200837

M3 - Review article

C2 - 23637048

AN - SCOPUS:84878912355

VL - 57

SP - 948

EP - 961

JO - Molecular Nutrition and Food Research

JF - Molecular Nutrition and Food Research

SN - 1613-4125

IS - 6

ER -