Supported inverse metal-metal oxide catalysts have received significant research interest owing to their effective hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activity toward biomass substrates, but the high cost of the reported catalysts poses a challenge for commercialization. We present the synthesis of a series of metal-metal oxide catalysts, Ir-MOx/SiO2 (M = Re, Mo, W, V, or Nb) and M′-MoOx/SiO2 (M = Rh, Ru, Pt, or Pd) and their HDO performance on multifuran (high carbon) substrates to produce renewable jet and diesel fuels and lubricant base oils. A MoOx-modified Ir/SiO2 catalyst with a Mo/Ir ratio of 0.13 (Ir-MoOx/SiO2) exhibits the highest product yield (78-96%) under mild reaction conditions. Controlled experiments using probe substrates reveal that furan ring hydrogenation and C-O hydrogenolysis of saturated and unsaturated furan rings occur in a sequential manner. The carbon atom adjacent to the furan or saturated furan ring of substrates or intermediate compounds undergoes slow C-C bond scission, resulting in a small fraction of lighter alkanes. Catalyst characterization suggests that Ir is reduced to a fully metallic state to dissociate hydrogen for hydrogenation. Intact MoOx, partly covering the Ir metal surface, promotes ring opening, hydrogenolysis of etheric and alcoholic C-O bonds, and hydrogenation of Câ• O bonds. This study highlights the potential of low-cost metal-metal oxide catalysts with low loading of oxophilic metals to enable cost-competitive production of bioproducts and demonstrates applicability of these catalysts on other substrates, including fatty acids, fatty esters, and lipids.
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