Nerves of both the upper and lower extremities are frequently injured for a variety of reasons. In the arms, median neuropathy at the wrist is by far the most common disorder; ulnar neuropathy also occurs with a relatively high frequency. Other mononeuropathies affecting the upper extremities, including anterior and posterior interosseous neuropathies, and musculocutaneous neuropathies, are very infrequent. In the legs, peroneal neuropathy at the fibular neck and lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy are the most common disorders, and other focal neuropathies, such as tibial neuropathy at the ankle (tarsal tunnel syndrome) are often sought but rarely identified. Although all mononeuropathies can be preliminarily diagnosed by history and clinical examination, neurophysiological testing provides a key component to confirming the diagnosis and assisting with treatment planning.
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