Multidisciplinary observations of the 2011 explosive eruption of Telica volcano, Nicaragua: Implications for the dynamics of low-explosivity ash eruptions

Halldor Geirsson, Mel Rodgers, Peter LaFemina, Molly Witter, Diana Roman, Angelica Muñoz, Virginia Tenorio, Julio Alvarez, Vladimir Conde Jacobo, Daniel Nilsson, Bo Galle, Maureen D. Feineman, Tanya Furman, Allan Morales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present multidisciplinary observations of the March-June 2011 VEI 2 eruptive episode of the basaltic-andesite Telica volcano, Nicaragua, which allow for a comprehensive study of the eruption mechanics of low-explosivity eruptions at persistently active volcanoes. The observations are from a dense network of seismic and GPS instrumentation augmented by visual observations of the eruptive episode, geochemical and petrologic analysis of eruptive products, plume SO2 measurements, and temperature measurements of fumaroles inside and outside the active vent. The 2011 eruptive episode was Telica's most explosive since 1999 and consisted of numerous vulcanian explosions, with maximum column heights of 1.5-2km above the crater rim, depositing a low volume of dominantly hydrothermally altered ash. Based on observed variations in seismicity, temperature, and SO2 flux, the lack of deformation of the edifice, the non-juvenile origin of and predominance of accretionary lapilli in the ash, we propose that temporary sealing of the hydrothermal system between ~0.5 and 2km depth, allowed pressure to build up prior to vulcanian explosions, making this a phreatic eruptive episode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-69
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Volume271
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2014

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Ashes
Nicaragua
Volcanoes
ashes
volcanoes
volcanic eruptions
Explosions
explosive
explosions
explosion
ash
volcano
volcanic eruption
visual observation
fumarole
hydrothermal systems
andesite
Vents
vents
sealing

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Geirsson, Halldor ; Rodgers, Mel ; LaFemina, Peter ; Witter, Molly ; Roman, Diana ; Muñoz, Angelica ; Tenorio, Virginia ; Alvarez, Julio ; Jacobo, Vladimir Conde ; Nilsson, Daniel ; Galle, Bo ; Feineman, Maureen D. ; Furman, Tanya ; Morales, Allan. / Multidisciplinary observations of the 2011 explosive eruption of Telica volcano, Nicaragua : Implications for the dynamics of low-explosivity ash eruptions. In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 2014 ; Vol. 271. pp. 55-69.
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Multidisciplinary observations of the 2011 explosive eruption of Telica volcano, Nicaragua : Implications for the dynamics of low-explosivity ash eruptions. / Geirsson, Halldor; Rodgers, Mel; LaFemina, Peter; Witter, Molly; Roman, Diana; Muñoz, Angelica; Tenorio, Virginia; Alvarez, Julio; Jacobo, Vladimir Conde; Nilsson, Daniel; Galle, Bo; Feineman, Maureen D.; Furman, Tanya; Morales, Allan.

In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 271, 01.02.2014, p. 55-69.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Rodgers, Mel

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AU - Witter, Molly

AU - Roman, Diana

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AU - Tenorio, Virginia

AU - Alvarez, Julio

AU - Jacobo, Vladimir Conde

AU - Nilsson, Daniel

AU - Galle, Bo

AU - Feineman, Maureen D.

AU - Furman, Tanya

AU - Morales, Allan

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N2 - We present multidisciplinary observations of the March-June 2011 VEI 2 eruptive episode of the basaltic-andesite Telica volcano, Nicaragua, which allow for a comprehensive study of the eruption mechanics of low-explosivity eruptions at persistently active volcanoes. The observations are from a dense network of seismic and GPS instrumentation augmented by visual observations of the eruptive episode, geochemical and petrologic analysis of eruptive products, plume SO2 measurements, and temperature measurements of fumaroles inside and outside the active vent. The 2011 eruptive episode was Telica's most explosive since 1999 and consisted of numerous vulcanian explosions, with maximum column heights of 1.5-2km above the crater rim, depositing a low volume of dominantly hydrothermally altered ash. Based on observed variations in seismicity, temperature, and SO2 flux, the lack of deformation of the edifice, the non-juvenile origin of and predominance of accretionary lapilli in the ash, we propose that temporary sealing of the hydrothermal system between ~0.5 and 2km depth, allowed pressure to build up prior to vulcanian explosions, making this a phreatic eruptive episode.

AB - We present multidisciplinary observations of the March-June 2011 VEI 2 eruptive episode of the basaltic-andesite Telica volcano, Nicaragua, which allow for a comprehensive study of the eruption mechanics of low-explosivity eruptions at persistently active volcanoes. The observations are from a dense network of seismic and GPS instrumentation augmented by visual observations of the eruptive episode, geochemical and petrologic analysis of eruptive products, plume SO2 measurements, and temperature measurements of fumaroles inside and outside the active vent. The 2011 eruptive episode was Telica's most explosive since 1999 and consisted of numerous vulcanian explosions, with maximum column heights of 1.5-2km above the crater rim, depositing a low volume of dominantly hydrothermally altered ash. Based on observed variations in seismicity, temperature, and SO2 flux, the lack of deformation of the edifice, the non-juvenile origin of and predominance of accretionary lapilli in the ash, we propose that temporary sealing of the hydrothermal system between ~0.5 and 2km depth, allowed pressure to build up prior to vulcanian explosions, making this a phreatic eruptive episode.

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