Much has been already been said about what simulations and games can provide that other research methodologies do not. But the complexity and richness of the results they afford in human factors research is matched by the complexity and cost of their conception, design, implementation, and validation. Though this may seem a daunting challenge to those considering such platforms for their own research, this panel aims to air the promises and pitfalls of simulations and games by sharing historical exemplars, lessons learned, and current issues in their use for human factors research. The panelists represent decades of experience in military, medical, and civilian research domains and have worked through abundant successes and failures in this area. Key issues of discussion will include cases which stand out as exemplary instances of using simulations and games in human factors research, particularly those that produced results that would have been unattainable by other methods, the challenges and constraints of participant pools (e.g. naïve subjects, access to domain experts, and suitable compromises), development of viable and engaging simulations (e.g., the problem of software written by grad students, for grad students), collection of accurate and meaningful data, and the generalizability of such game and simulation platforms as well as the adaptability of off-the-shelf solutions.