As health care costs and demands for health care services have been rising for decades in the United States, health care reforms have focused on increasing the performance of health care delivery. Competition has been considered as a mechanism to improve the quality of health care services and operational performance. Evidence on health care performance and market competition, however, has not sufficiently been reported to track its progress. The purpose of this study is twofold: First, we measure hospital performance over nine years, using the Malmquist Productivity Index. Second, we examine the impact of market competition on hospital efficiency in Pennsylvania, using a two-stage estimation procedure. The bootstrapped Malmquist productivity indices resulted in noticeable performance improvements. However, no steady performance trends were found during the course of nine years. In examining the impact of market competition, the bootstrapped panel Tobit analysis was applied after computing the efficiency scores with Data Envelopment Analysis. The results of the Tobit model found that hospitals run more efficiently in less competitive regions than in more competitive regions. The finding implies that hospitals underperforming in productivity growth should benchmark best practices of efficient hospitals to improve their productivity level. Another implication is that market competition would not be the best approach to effect the improvement of hospital efficiency in delivering health care services.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Health Informatics
- Health Policy
- Health Information Management
- Leadership and Management