Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography

Wendong Wang, Jaakko V.I. Timonen, Andreas Carlson, Dirk Michael Drotlef, Cathy T. Zhang, Stefan Kolle, Alison Grinthal, Tak Sing Wong, Benjamin Hatton, Sung Hoon Kang, Stephen Kennedy, Joshua Chi, Robert Thomas Blough, Metin Sitti, L. Mahadevan, Joanna Aizenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Developing adaptive materials with geometries that change in response to external stimuli provides fundamental insights into the links between the physical forces involved and the resultant morphologies and creates a foundation for technologically relevant dynamic systems 1,2 . In particular, reconfigurable surface topography as a means to control interfacial properties 3 has recently been explored using responsive gels 4, shape-memory polymers 5, liquid crystals 6-8 and hybrid composites 9-14, including magnetically active slippery surfaces 12-14 . However, these designs exhibit a limited range of topographical changes and thus a restricted scope of function. Here we introduce a hierarchical magneto-responsive composite surface, made by infiltrating a ferrofluid into a microstructured matrix (termed ferrofluid-containing liquid-infused porous surfaces, or FLIPS). We demonstrate various topographical reconfigurations at multiple length scales and a broad range of associated emergent behaviours. An applied magnetic-field gradient induces the movement of magnetic nanoparticles suspended in the ferrofluid, which leads to microscale flow of the ferrofluid first above and then within the microstructured surface. This redistribution changes the initially smooth surface of the ferrofluid (which is immobilized by the porous matrix through capillary forces) into various multiscale hierarchical topographies shaped by the size, arrangement and orientation of the confining microstructures in the magnetic field. We analyse the spatial and temporal dynamics of these reconfigurations theoretically and experimentally as a function of the balance between capillary and magnetic pressures 15-19 and of the geometric anisotropy of the FLIPS system. Several interesting functions at three different length scales are demonstrated: self-assembly of colloidal particles at the micrometre scale; regulated flow of liquid droplets at the millimetre scale; and switchable adhesion and friction, liquid pumping and removal of biofilms at the centimetre scale. We envision that FLIPS could be used as part of integrated control systems for the manipulation and transport of matter, thermal management, microfluidics and fouling-release materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)77-82
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume559
Issue number7712
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 5 2018

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Magnetic Fields
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Microfluidics
Friction
Anisotropy
Biofilms
Nanoparticles
Polymers
Hot Temperature
Gels
Pressure
crystal-8

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Wang, W., Timonen, J. V. I., Carlson, A., Drotlef, D. M., Zhang, C. T., Kolle, S., ... Aizenberg, J. (2018). Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography. Nature, 559(7712), 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0250-8
Wang, Wendong ; Timonen, Jaakko V.I. ; Carlson, Andreas ; Drotlef, Dirk Michael ; Zhang, Cathy T. ; Kolle, Stefan ; Grinthal, Alison ; Wong, Tak Sing ; Hatton, Benjamin ; Kang, Sung Hoon ; Kennedy, Stephen ; Chi, Joshua ; Blough, Robert Thomas ; Sitti, Metin ; Mahadevan, L. ; Aizenberg, Joanna. / Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography. In: Nature. 2018 ; Vol. 559, No. 7712. pp. 77-82.
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Wang, W, Timonen, JVI, Carlson, A, Drotlef, DM, Zhang, CT, Kolle, S, Grinthal, A, Wong, TS, Hatton, B, Kang, SH, Kennedy, S, Chi, J, Blough, RT, Sitti, M, Mahadevan, L & Aizenberg, J 2018, 'Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography', Nature, vol. 559, no. 7712, pp. 77-82. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0250-8

Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography. / Wang, Wendong; Timonen, Jaakko V.I.; Carlson, Andreas; Drotlef, Dirk Michael; Zhang, Cathy T.; Kolle, Stefan; Grinthal, Alison; Wong, Tak Sing; Hatton, Benjamin; Kang, Sung Hoon; Kennedy, Stephen; Chi, Joshua; Blough, Robert Thomas; Sitti, Metin; Mahadevan, L.; Aizenberg, Joanna.

In: Nature, Vol. 559, No. 7712, 05.07.2018, p. 77-82.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Wang, Wendong

AU - Timonen, Jaakko V.I.

AU - Carlson, Andreas

AU - Drotlef, Dirk Michael

AU - Zhang, Cathy T.

AU - Kolle, Stefan

AU - Grinthal, Alison

AU - Wong, Tak Sing

AU - Hatton, Benjamin

AU - Kang, Sung Hoon

AU - Kennedy, Stephen

AU - Chi, Joshua

AU - Blough, Robert Thomas

AU - Sitti, Metin

AU - Mahadevan, L.

AU - Aizenberg, Joanna

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Wang W, Timonen JVI, Carlson A, Drotlef DM, Zhang CT, Kolle S et al. Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography. Nature. 2018 Jul 5;559(7712):77-82. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0250-8