Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii from Laos in a regional and global context

Lam Tuan Thanh, Trieu Hai Phan, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Trinh Mai Nguyen, Anh Van Duong, Cherrelle Dacon, Thu Nha Hoang, Lan Phu Huong Nguyen, Chau Thi Hong Tran, Viengmon Davong, Chau Van Vinh Nguyen, Guy E. Thwaites, Maciej F. Boni, David Dance, Philip M. Ashton, Jeremy N. Day

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cryptococcosis causes approximately 180 000 deaths each year in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients with other forms of immunosuppression are also at risk, and disease is increasingly recognized in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, responsible for the majority of cases, is distributed globally. We used the consensus ISHAM Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to define the population structure of clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Laos (n = 81), which we placed into the global context using published MLST data from other countries (total N = 1047), including a reanalysis of 136 Vietnamese isolates previously reported. We observed a phylogeographical relationship in which the Laotian population was similar to its neighbor Thailand, being dominated (83%) by Sequence Types (ST) 4 and 6. This phylogeographical structure changed moving Eastwards, with Vietnam’s population consisting of an admixture of isolates dominated by the ST4/ST6 (35%) and ST5 (48%) lineages. The ST5 lineage is the predominant ST reported from China and East Asia, where it accounts for >90% of isolates. Analysis of genetic distance (Fst) between different populations of C. neoformans var. grubii supports this intermediate structure of the Vietnamese population. The pathogen and host diversity reported from Vietnam provide the strongest epidemiological evidence of the association between ST5 and HIV-uninfected patients. Regional anthropological genetic distances suggest diversity in the C. neoformans var. grubii population across Southeast Asia is driven by ecological rather than human host factors. Where the ST5 lineage is present, disease in HIV-uninfected patients is to be expected.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)557-565
Number of pages9
JournalMedical Mycology
Volume57
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2019

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Laos
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Cryptococcus neoformans
Population
HIV
Cryptococcosis
Southeastern Asia
Anthropology
Far East
Vietnam
Thailand
Immunosuppression
China

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Thanh, L. T., Phan, T. H., Rattanavong, S., Nguyen, T. M., Van Duong, A., Dacon, C., ... Day, J. N. (2019). Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii from Laos in a regional and global context. Medical Mycology, 57(5), 557-565. https://doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myy105
Thanh, Lam Tuan ; Phan, Trieu Hai ; Rattanavong, Sayaphet ; Nguyen, Trinh Mai ; Van Duong, Anh ; Dacon, Cherrelle ; Hoang, Thu Nha ; Nguyen, Lan Phu Huong ; Tran, Chau Thi Hong ; Davong, Viengmon ; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh ; Thwaites, Guy E. ; Boni, Maciej F. ; Dance, David ; Ashton, Philip M. ; Day, Jeremy N. / Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii from Laos in a regional and global context. In: Medical Mycology. 2019 ; Vol. 57, No. 5. pp. 557-565.
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Thanh, LT, Phan, TH, Rattanavong, S, Nguyen, TM, Van Duong, A, Dacon, C, Hoang, TN, Nguyen, LPH, Tran, CTH, Davong, V, Nguyen, CVV, Thwaites, GE, Boni, MF, Dance, D, Ashton, PM & Day, JN 2019, 'Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii from Laos in a regional and global context', Medical Mycology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 557-565. https://doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myy105

Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii from Laos in a regional and global context. / Thanh, Lam Tuan; Phan, Trieu Hai; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Nguyen, Trinh Mai; Van Duong, Anh; Dacon, Cherrelle; Hoang, Thu Nha; Nguyen, Lan Phu Huong; Tran, Chau Thi Hong; Davong, Viengmon; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy E.; Boni, Maciej F.; Dance, David; Ashton, Philip M.; Day, Jeremy N.

In: Medical Mycology, Vol. 57, No. 5, 07.2019, p. 557-565.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptococcus neoformans var. Grubii from Laos in a regional and global context

AU - Thanh, Lam Tuan

AU - Phan, Trieu Hai

AU - Rattanavong, Sayaphet

AU - Nguyen, Trinh Mai

AU - Van Duong, Anh

AU - Dacon, Cherrelle

AU - Hoang, Thu Nha

AU - Nguyen, Lan Phu Huong

AU - Tran, Chau Thi Hong

AU - Davong, Viengmon

AU - Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh

AU - Thwaites, Guy E.

AU - Boni, Maciej F.

AU - Dance, David

AU - Ashton, Philip M.

AU - Day, Jeremy N.

PY - 2019/7

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N2 - Cryptococcosis causes approximately 180 000 deaths each year in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients with other forms of immunosuppression are also at risk, and disease is increasingly recognized in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, responsible for the majority of cases, is distributed globally. We used the consensus ISHAM Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to define the population structure of clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Laos (n = 81), which we placed into the global context using published MLST data from other countries (total N = 1047), including a reanalysis of 136 Vietnamese isolates previously reported. We observed a phylogeographical relationship in which the Laotian population was similar to its neighbor Thailand, being dominated (83%) by Sequence Types (ST) 4 and 6. This phylogeographical structure changed moving Eastwards, with Vietnam’s population consisting of an admixture of isolates dominated by the ST4/ST6 (35%) and ST5 (48%) lineages. The ST5 lineage is the predominant ST reported from China and East Asia, where it accounts for >90% of isolates. Analysis of genetic distance (Fst) between different populations of C. neoformans var. grubii supports this intermediate structure of the Vietnamese population. The pathogen and host diversity reported from Vietnam provide the strongest epidemiological evidence of the association between ST5 and HIV-uninfected patients. Regional anthropological genetic distances suggest diversity in the C. neoformans var. grubii population across Southeast Asia is driven by ecological rather than human host factors. Where the ST5 lineage is present, disease in HIV-uninfected patients is to be expected.

AB - Cryptococcosis causes approximately 180 000 deaths each year in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Patients with other forms of immunosuppression are also at risk, and disease is increasingly recognized in apparently immunocompetent individuals. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, responsible for the majority of cases, is distributed globally. We used the consensus ISHAM Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to define the population structure of clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from Laos (n = 81), which we placed into the global context using published MLST data from other countries (total N = 1047), including a reanalysis of 136 Vietnamese isolates previously reported. We observed a phylogeographical relationship in which the Laotian population was similar to its neighbor Thailand, being dominated (83%) by Sequence Types (ST) 4 and 6. This phylogeographical structure changed moving Eastwards, with Vietnam’s population consisting of an admixture of isolates dominated by the ST4/ST6 (35%) and ST5 (48%) lineages. The ST5 lineage is the predominant ST reported from China and East Asia, where it accounts for >90% of isolates. Analysis of genetic distance (Fst) between different populations of C. neoformans var. grubii supports this intermediate structure of the Vietnamese population. The pathogen and host diversity reported from Vietnam provide the strongest epidemiological evidence of the association between ST5 and HIV-uninfected patients. Regional anthropological genetic distances suggest diversity in the C. neoformans var. grubii population across Southeast Asia is driven by ecological rather than human host factors. Where the ST5 lineage is present, disease in HIV-uninfected patients is to be expected.

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