Multiple forms of TGF-beta: distinct promoters and differential expression.

A. B. Roberts, S. J. Kim, T. Noma, Adam Bleier Glick, R. Lafyatis, R. Lechleider, S. B. Jakowlew, A. Geiser, M. A. O'Reilly, D. Danielpour

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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Abstract

There are now five known distinct isoforms of TGF-beta with 64-82% identity. Of these, only TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 thus far have been demonstrated to be expressed in mammalian tissues; TGF-beta 4 has been described only in chicken and TGF-beta 5 only in frog. Although the biological activities of these five isoforms of TGF-beta are indistinguishable in most in vitro assays their sites of synthesis and localization in vivo are often distinct. Expression of the various isoforms is differentially controlled both in vivo, as in development, and in vitro after treatment of cells with steroids, such as oestrogen or tamoxifen, or with retinoids. To investigate the basis of these observations we have cloned and characterized the promoters for the human TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 genes. Significant differences have been found: whereas the TGF-beta 1 promoter has no TATAA box and is regulated principally by AP-1 sites, both the TGF-beta 2 and 3 promoters have TATAA boxes as well as AP-2 sites and cAMP-responsive elements. Accordingly, TGF-beta 1 gene expression is induced strongly by phorbol esters whereas that of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is induced by forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. Expression of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is often coordinately regulated in vivo in a pattern distinct from that of TGF-beta 1.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-15
Number of pages9
JournalCiba Foundation symposium
Volume157
StatePublished - Jan 1 1991

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Transforming Growth Factor beta3
Transforming Growth Factor beta2
Transforming Growth Factor beta1
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Protein Isoforms
Transcription Factor AP-1
Retinoids
Phorbol Esters
Colforsin
Tamoxifen
Adenylyl Cyclases
Anura
Chickens
Estrogens
Steroids
Gene Expression
Genes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

Cite this

Roberts, A. B., Kim, S. J., Noma, T., Glick, A. B., Lafyatis, R., Lechleider, R., ... Danielpour, D. (1991). Multiple forms of TGF-beta: distinct promoters and differential expression. Ciba Foundation symposium, 157, 7-15.
Roberts, A. B. ; Kim, S. J. ; Noma, T. ; Glick, Adam Bleier ; Lafyatis, R. ; Lechleider, R. ; Jakowlew, S. B. ; Geiser, A. ; O'Reilly, M. A. ; Danielpour, D. / Multiple forms of TGF-beta : distinct promoters and differential expression. In: Ciba Foundation symposium. 1991 ; Vol. 157. pp. 7-15.
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abstract = "There are now five known distinct isoforms of TGF-beta with 64-82{\%} identity. Of these, only TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 thus far have been demonstrated to be expressed in mammalian tissues; TGF-beta 4 has been described only in chicken and TGF-beta 5 only in frog. Although the biological activities of these five isoforms of TGF-beta are indistinguishable in most in vitro assays their sites of synthesis and localization in vivo are often distinct. Expression of the various isoforms is differentially controlled both in vivo, as in development, and in vitro after treatment of cells with steroids, such as oestrogen or tamoxifen, or with retinoids. To investigate the basis of these observations we have cloned and characterized the promoters for the human TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 genes. Significant differences have been found: whereas the TGF-beta 1 promoter has no TATAA box and is regulated principally by AP-1 sites, both the TGF-beta 2 and 3 promoters have TATAA boxes as well as AP-2 sites and cAMP-responsive elements. Accordingly, TGF-beta 1 gene expression is induced strongly by phorbol esters whereas that of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is induced by forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. Expression of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is often coordinately regulated in vivo in a pattern distinct from that of TGF-beta 1.",
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Roberts, AB, Kim, SJ, Noma, T, Glick, AB, Lafyatis, R, Lechleider, R, Jakowlew, SB, Geiser, A, O'Reilly, MA & Danielpour, D 1991, 'Multiple forms of TGF-beta: distinct promoters and differential expression.', Ciba Foundation symposium, vol. 157, pp. 7-15.

Multiple forms of TGF-beta : distinct promoters and differential expression. / Roberts, A. B.; Kim, S. J.; Noma, T.; Glick, Adam Bleier; Lafyatis, R.; Lechleider, R.; Jakowlew, S. B.; Geiser, A.; O'Reilly, M. A.; Danielpour, D.

In: Ciba Foundation symposium, Vol. 157, 01.01.1991, p. 7-15.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Multiple forms of TGF-beta

T2 - distinct promoters and differential expression.

AU - Roberts, A. B.

AU - Kim, S. J.

AU - Noma, T.

AU - Glick, Adam Bleier

AU - Lafyatis, R.

AU - Lechleider, R.

AU - Jakowlew, S. B.

AU - Geiser, A.

AU - O'Reilly, M. A.

AU - Danielpour, D.

PY - 1991/1/1

Y1 - 1991/1/1

N2 - There are now five known distinct isoforms of TGF-beta with 64-82% identity. Of these, only TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 thus far have been demonstrated to be expressed in mammalian tissues; TGF-beta 4 has been described only in chicken and TGF-beta 5 only in frog. Although the biological activities of these five isoforms of TGF-beta are indistinguishable in most in vitro assays their sites of synthesis and localization in vivo are often distinct. Expression of the various isoforms is differentially controlled both in vivo, as in development, and in vitro after treatment of cells with steroids, such as oestrogen or tamoxifen, or with retinoids. To investigate the basis of these observations we have cloned and characterized the promoters for the human TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 genes. Significant differences have been found: whereas the TGF-beta 1 promoter has no TATAA box and is regulated principally by AP-1 sites, both the TGF-beta 2 and 3 promoters have TATAA boxes as well as AP-2 sites and cAMP-responsive elements. Accordingly, TGF-beta 1 gene expression is induced strongly by phorbol esters whereas that of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is induced by forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. Expression of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is often coordinately regulated in vivo in a pattern distinct from that of TGF-beta 1.

AB - There are now five known distinct isoforms of TGF-beta with 64-82% identity. Of these, only TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 thus far have been demonstrated to be expressed in mammalian tissues; TGF-beta 4 has been described only in chicken and TGF-beta 5 only in frog. Although the biological activities of these five isoforms of TGF-beta are indistinguishable in most in vitro assays their sites of synthesis and localization in vivo are often distinct. Expression of the various isoforms is differentially controlled both in vivo, as in development, and in vitro after treatment of cells with steroids, such as oestrogen or tamoxifen, or with retinoids. To investigate the basis of these observations we have cloned and characterized the promoters for the human TGF-beta 1, 2 and 3 genes. Significant differences have been found: whereas the TGF-beta 1 promoter has no TATAA box and is regulated principally by AP-1 sites, both the TGF-beta 2 and 3 promoters have TATAA boxes as well as AP-2 sites and cAMP-responsive elements. Accordingly, TGF-beta 1 gene expression is induced strongly by phorbol esters whereas that of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is induced by forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. Expression of TGF-beta 2 and 3 is often coordinately regulated in vivo in a pattern distinct from that of TGF-beta 1.

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Roberts AB, Kim SJ, Noma T, Glick AB, Lafyatis R, Lechleider R et al. Multiple forms of TGF-beta: distinct promoters and differential expression. Ciba Foundation symposium. 1991 Jan 1;157:7-15.