At the culmination of poliovirus (PV) multiplication, membranes are observed that contain phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) and appear as vesicular clusters in cross section. Induction and remodeling of PI4P and membranes prior to or concurrent with genome replication has not been well studied. Here, we exploit two PV mutants, termed EG and GG, which exhibit aberrant proteolytic processing of the P3 precursor that substantially delays the onset of genome replication and/or impairs virus assembly, to illuminate the pathway of formation of PV-induced membranous structures. For WT PV, changes to the PI4P pool were observed as early as 30 min post-infection. PI4P remodeling occurred even in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride, a replication inhibitor, and was accompanied by formation of membrane tubules throughout the cytoplasm. Vesicular clusters appeared in the perinuclear region of the cell at 3 h post-infection, a time too slow for these structures to be responsible for genome replication. Delays in the onset of genome replication observed for EG and GG PVs were similar to the delays in virus-induced remodeling of PI4P pools, consistent with PI4P serving as a marker of the genome-replication organelle. GG PV was unable to convert virus-induced tubules into vesicular clusters, perhaps explaining the nearly 5-log reduction in infectious virus produced by this mutant. Our results are consistent with PV inducing temporally distinct membranous structures (organelles) for genome replication (tubules) and virus assembly (vesicular clusters). We suggest that the pace of formation, spatiotemporal dynamics, and the efficiency of the replication-to-assembly-organelle conversion may be set by both the rate of P3 polyprotein processing and the capacity for P3 processing to yield 3AB and/or 3CD proteins.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology