Background: Muscle wasting has a negative effect on treatment toxicity and cancer prognosis. Resistance training appears to be a promising approach to counteract the loss of muscle mass. Methods: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, SportDiscus and CINAHL. Randomized controlled resistance training trials with cancer survivros where eligible if lean body mass (LBM) or muscle mass were assessed. Results: A total of 34 trials were included into the primary analysis. Compared to the control individuals, the intervention groups show a superiority in LBM of 0.85 kg (95 % CI = 0.26–1.43, p =.004). Isolated, the participants in the intervention groups show an increase in LBM of 0.51 kg (95 % CI = −0.05–1.06, p =.072); the control groups displayed a decrease of −0.59 kg (95 % CI= −1.04 to 0.06, p =.078). Supervision displayed an mediating role. Conclusions: Resistance training can counteract the loss of muscle mass in cancer patients. Especially in a supervised setting.
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