Seventeen mold strains were isolated from 'Greek-style' black olives produced in Morocco. Eight of these isolates were identified as Aspergillus flavus, seven as Aspergillus petrakii, and two as Aspergillus ocharaceus Wilhelm. The A. flavus strains were tested for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; and A. ochraceus and A. petrakii strains were tested for production of ochratoxin, penicillic acid, patulin, and citrinin. The organisms were tested for mycotoxin production on five different substrates, including rice powder-corn steep agar, autoclaved rice, yeast-extract sucrose broth (YES), potato dextrose agar (PDA), and fresh olive paste. All strains of A. flavus produced aflatoxins on all substrates except olive paste and PDA. In PDA, only two strains produced Aflatoxin B1. Five A. ochraceus group isolates produced penicillic acid on one or more of the substrates, but only two out of the five produced penicillic acid on olive paste. None produced ochratoxin, patulin or citrinin. Quantities of aflatoxin B1 produced in rice ranged from 5 to 14 μg/g of rice, and of penicillic acid 15-32 μg/g of rice. In olive paste, the concentrations of penicillic acid were 11.4 and 30.2 μg/g. Biological toxicity of extracts of mold cultures was confirmed using chicken embryos and a microbiological test. Crude extracts of cultures were also tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutagenicity (Ames) Test, and some gave positive mutagenic responses.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science