Cellular senescence is a stable growth arrest that is implicated in tissue ageing and cancer. Senescent cells are characterized by an upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, which is termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). NAD + metabolism influences both tissue ageing and cancer. However, the role of NAD + metabolism in regulating the SASP is poorly understood. Here, we show that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting enzyme of the NAD + salvage pathway, governs the proinflammatory SASP independent of senescence-associated growth arrest. NAMPT expression is regulated by high mobility group A (HMGA) proteins during senescence. The HMGA–NAMPT–NAD + signalling axis promotes the proinflammatory SASP by enhancing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. HMGA proteins and NAMPT promote the proinflammatory SASP through NAD + -mediated suppression of AMPK kinase, which suppresses the p53-mediated inhibition of p38 MAPK to enhance NF-κB activity. We conclude that NAD + metabolism governs the proinflammatory SASP. Given the tumour-promoting effects of the proinflammatory SASP, our results suggest that anti-ageing dietary NAD + augmentation should be administered with precision.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology