NaRALF, a peptide signal essential for the regulation of root hair tip apoplastic pH in Nicotiana attenuata, is required for root hair development and plant growth in native soils

Jinsong Wu, Erin L. Kurten, Gabriele Monshausen, Grégoire M. Hummel, Simon Gilroy, Ian T. Baldwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a 49-amino-acid peptide that rapidly alkalinizes cultivated tobacco cell cultures. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, NaRALF occurs as a single-copy gene and is highly expressed in roots and petioles. Silencing the NaRALF transcript by transforming N. attenuata with an inverted-repeat construct generated plants (irRALF) with normal wild-type (WT) above-ground parts, but with roots that grew longer and produced trichoblasts that developed into abnormal root hairs. Most trichoblasts produced a localized 'bulge' without commencing root hair tip growth; fewer trichoblasts grew, but were only 10% as long as those of WT plants. The root hair phenotype was associated with slowed apoplastic pH oscillations, increased pH at the tips of trichoblasts and decreased accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the root hair initiation zone. The root hair growth phenotype was partially restored when irRALF lines were grown in a low-pH-buffered medium, and reproduced in WT plants grown in a high-pH-buffered medium. When irRALF plants were grown in pH 5.6, 6.7 and 8.1 soils together with WT plants in glasshouse experiments, they were out-competed by WT plants in basic, but not acidic, soils. When WT and irRALF lines were planted into the basic soils of the native habitat of N. attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, irRALF plants had smaller leaves, shorter stalks, and produced fewer flowers and seed capsules than did WT plants. We conclude that NaRALF is required for regulating root hair extracellular pH, the transition from root hair initiation to tip growth and plant growth in basic soils.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)877-890
Number of pages14
JournalPlant Journal
Volume52
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007

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Plant Development
Meristem
root hairs
Protein Sorting Signals
signal peptide
Growth and Development
Tobacco
Soil
plant growth
soil
Growth
phenotype
alkalinization
xerophytes
Phenotype
petioles
Nicotiana attenuata
acid soils
Nicotiana tabacum
aerial parts

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "NaRALF, a peptide signal essential for the regulation of root hair tip apoplastic pH in Nicotiana attenuata, is required for root hair development and plant growth in native soils",
abstract = "Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a 49-amino-acid peptide that rapidly alkalinizes cultivated tobacco cell cultures. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, NaRALF occurs as a single-copy gene and is highly expressed in roots and petioles. Silencing the NaRALF transcript by transforming N. attenuata with an inverted-repeat construct generated plants (irRALF) with normal wild-type (WT) above-ground parts, but with roots that grew longer and produced trichoblasts that developed into abnormal root hairs. Most trichoblasts produced a localized 'bulge' without commencing root hair tip growth; fewer trichoblasts grew, but were only 10{\%} as long as those of WT plants. The root hair phenotype was associated with slowed apoplastic pH oscillations, increased pH at the tips of trichoblasts and decreased accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the root hair initiation zone. The root hair growth phenotype was partially restored when irRALF lines were grown in a low-pH-buffered medium, and reproduced in WT plants grown in a high-pH-buffered medium. When irRALF plants were grown in pH 5.6, 6.7 and 8.1 soils together with WT plants in glasshouse experiments, they were out-competed by WT plants in basic, but not acidic, soils. When WT and irRALF lines were planted into the basic soils of the native habitat of N. attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, irRALF plants had smaller leaves, shorter stalks, and produced fewer flowers and seed capsules than did WT plants. We conclude that NaRALF is required for regulating root hair extracellular pH, the transition from root hair initiation to tip growth and plant growth in basic soils.",
author = "Jinsong Wu and Kurten, {Erin L.} and Gabriele Monshausen and Hummel, {Gr{\'e}goire M.} and Simon Gilroy and Baldwin, {Ian T.}",
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NaRALF, a peptide signal essential for the regulation of root hair tip apoplastic pH in Nicotiana attenuata, is required for root hair development and plant growth in native soils. / Wu, Jinsong; Kurten, Erin L.; Monshausen, Gabriele; Hummel, Grégoire M.; Gilroy, Simon; Baldwin, Ian T.

In: Plant Journal, Vol. 52, No. 5, 01.12.2007, p. 877-890.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - NaRALF, a peptide signal essential for the regulation of root hair tip apoplastic pH in Nicotiana attenuata, is required for root hair development and plant growth in native soils

AU - Wu, Jinsong

AU - Kurten, Erin L.

AU - Monshausen, Gabriele

AU - Hummel, Grégoire M.

AU - Gilroy, Simon

AU - Baldwin, Ian T.

PY - 2007/12/1

Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a 49-amino-acid peptide that rapidly alkalinizes cultivated tobacco cell cultures. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, NaRALF occurs as a single-copy gene and is highly expressed in roots and petioles. Silencing the NaRALF transcript by transforming N. attenuata with an inverted-repeat construct generated plants (irRALF) with normal wild-type (WT) above-ground parts, but with roots that grew longer and produced trichoblasts that developed into abnormal root hairs. Most trichoblasts produced a localized 'bulge' without commencing root hair tip growth; fewer trichoblasts grew, but were only 10% as long as those of WT plants. The root hair phenotype was associated with slowed apoplastic pH oscillations, increased pH at the tips of trichoblasts and decreased accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the root hair initiation zone. The root hair growth phenotype was partially restored when irRALF lines were grown in a low-pH-buffered medium, and reproduced in WT plants grown in a high-pH-buffered medium. When irRALF plants were grown in pH 5.6, 6.7 and 8.1 soils together with WT plants in glasshouse experiments, they were out-competed by WT plants in basic, but not acidic, soils. When WT and irRALF lines were planted into the basic soils of the native habitat of N. attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, irRALF plants had smaller leaves, shorter stalks, and produced fewer flowers and seed capsules than did WT plants. We conclude that NaRALF is required for regulating root hair extracellular pH, the transition from root hair initiation to tip growth and plant growth in basic soils.

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