Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy in the liver worldwide. The incidence of the tumor varies geographically. Thus, in the eastern area (China, Taiwan, and Japan) there are more than 20 cases per year per 100,000 population compared to less than 5 cases per 100,000 in most western countries . The etiology of HCC is multifactorial. The two most important factors are the presence of cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis . Early detection of HCC still remains a challenge. At the time of diagnosis, only 20-30% of all patients have tumors that are surgically resectable. Survival after curative resection is 30%-50% at five years. The poor outcome of the disease led to the development of different adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies. There are numerous studies dealing with the treatment of HCC. Unfortunately, only few randomized controlled trials exist. In addition, there is no consensus on staging of HCC and no standardization of the outcome in the literature, which makes it difficult to compare the different procedures. This paper summarizes the current strategies in the treatment of HCC.
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