Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Fed an Exclusive Human Milk Diet Is Not Affected by Growth Velocity

Amanda Rahman, Jordan S. Kase, Yuanyi L. Murray, Boriana Parvez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: An exclusive human milk (EHM) diet in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (birth weight ≤1,000 g) is linked to an increased likelihood of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR, weight <10% at discharge). Past studies associated EUGR with worse neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes; however, its impact when an EHM diet is used is unknown. Objective: Determine whether EUGR adversely affects 2-year ND outcomes of ELBW infants fed an EHM diet. Secondary aims were to compare short-term morbidities and growth through 2 years corrected age (CA). Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study of ELBW infants fed an EHM diet until 34 weeks corrected gestational age and assessed at 2 years CA. ND outcomes between EUGR and non-EUGR infants were compared using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd Ed (BSID-III). Results: Eighty-one ELBW infants survived, 44 were seen for follow-up, and 16 (36%) were EUGR. Baseline characteristics and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) morbidities were similar. There were no statistically significant differences (median [25-75%]) between EUGR and non-EUGR groups in cognition, (90 [80-99] versus 95 [90-104]), language (84 [68-105] versus 89 [75-100]), or motor composite scores (87 [74-96] versus 91 [88-96]). Weight z-scores during NICU stay dropped in both groups, more pronounced for the EUGR infants. There was no difference in linear or head growth. Conclusion: In our institution, ND outcomes at 2 years CA for ELBW infants fed an EHM diet were similar regardless of EUGR status. This suggests a neuroprotective effect of EHM diet in the ELBW population, despite weight gain velocity during NICU stay.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)362-369
Number of pages8
JournalBreastfeeding Medicine
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics
  • Health Policy
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Maternity and Midwifery

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