An exceedingly rare manifestation of leukemia, termed neuroleukemiosis, involves peripheral nerve infiltration by leukemic cells. Patients with neuroleukemiosis typically present with a peripheral neuropathy and/or chloromatous masses. The diagnosis is supported by, and established with, electrophysiologic testing, imaging, histopathology, and immunophenotyping. We present the case of 21 year old male with multiply relapsed M4 type of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who presented with extremity pain and was subsequently found to have multiple cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral nerve root masses. A diagnosis of neuroleukemiosis was established via CT-guided biopsy and immunophenotyping. The patient's neuroleukemiosis responded well to chemotherapy, donor lymphocyte infusions, and spinal irradiation. The literature is reviewed regarding this interesting and rare clinical condition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number105340
JournalClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2019


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

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