A nonlinear ultrasonic method is proposed based on a group of newly discovered wave triplets where two primary codirectional shear-horizontal SH0 waves mix in a weakly nonlinear plate and generate a cumulative S0 Lamb wave at the sum frequency. Theoretical analyses show that any combination of two primary SH0 waves whose frequencies sum to the frequency at which the SH0 mode intersects the S0 Lamb wave mode results in an internally resonant secondary S0 Lamb wave. Moreover, the relationship between the frequency combination and the nonlinear Lamb wave generation efficiency is revealed, which guides further engineering applications. Finite element validations are carried out with the aid of a subtraction method for the nonlinear feature extraction. The cumulative effect of the generated S0 Lamb wave at the sum frequency as well as the influence of the frequency combinations on the nonlinear Lamb wave generation efficiency is confirmed. Experiments are performed to validate the proposed method as well as demonstrate its use for material characterization. The experiments require a gel filter to mitigate the influence of the undesired nonlinear sources. With the gel filter, the cumulative effect of the secondary S0 Lamb wave is verified and the corresponding slope is extracted and further used to characterize the material status of the fatigue samples. Results demonstrate the proposed method provides high sensitivity to early fatigue damage, which makes it promising for the further early damage detection applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics