Background: Daily antenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) compared with iron folic acid (IFA) supplementation from early pregnancy improved birth outcomes and maternal micronutrient status in rural Bangladesh, but effects on newborn status are unknown. Objective: We examined cord blood micronutrient biomarkers in relation to antenatal MM and IFA supplementation and maternal gestational micronutrient status in rural Bangladeshi newborns. Design: In a double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial of antenatal IFA or MM (with the same IFA content), we analyzed cord blood plasma from 333 singleton births, and corresponding maternal plasma at 32.5 ± 2.6 wk of gestation, for ferritin (iron stores), folate, cobalamin (vitamin B-12), retinol (vitamin A), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D, vitamin D status], α-tocopherol (vitamin E), zinc, thyroglobulin, and free thyroxine (iodine status). Intervention effects and associations were determined using linear regression, exploring maternal status as a mediator of intervention effects on cord biomarkers. Results: The MM intervention increased cord ferritin (mean: +12.4%; 95% CI: 1.3, 24.6%), 25(OH)D (mean: +14.7%; 95% CI: 4.8, 25.6%), and zinc (mean: +5.8%; 95% CI: 1.0, 10.8%). Cord folate (mean: +26.8%; 95% CI: 19.6, 34.5%), cobalamin (mean: +31.3%; 95% CI: 24.6, 38.3%), 25(OH)D (mean: +26.7%; 95% CI: 23.2, 30.3%), α-tocopherol (mean: +8.7%; 95% CI: 3.6, 13.7%), zinc (mean: +2.3%; 95% CI: 0.5, 4.2%), thyroglobulin (mean: +20.1%; 95% CI: 9.0, 32.2%) and thyroxine (mean: +1.5%; 95% CI: 0.0, 3.0%) increased per 1-SD increment in maternal status (all P < 0.05); ferritin and retinol changed by +2.0%; 95% CI: -8.9, 14.3%; P = 0.72; and +3.5%; 95% CI: -0.4, 7.3%; P = 0.07, respectively. Ferritin, folate, cobalamin, zinc, and thyroglobulin averaged 1.57-6.75 times higher and retinol, α-tocopherol, and 25(OH)D 0.30-0.84 times lower in cord than maternal plasma, suggesting preferential maternal-fetal transfer of iron, folate, cobalamin, and zinc; limited transfer of fat-soluble vitamins; and high fetal iodine demand. Conclusions: Antenatal MM supplementation increased newborn ferritin, 25(OH)D, and zinc, while maternal and newborn folate, vitamins B-12, D, and E, zinc, and iodine biomarkers were positively related. Despite limited effects of MM, better maternal micronutrient status was associated with improved micronutrient status of Bangladeshi newborns. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860470.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics