Nicotine and metabolites in meconium as evidence of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and predictors of neonatal growth deficits

Teresa R. Gray, Rina Das Eiden, Kenneth E. Leonard, Gerard Connors, Shannon Shisler, Marilyn A. Huestis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Many women continue tobacco use during pregnancy despite known adverse consequences on neonatal growth and development. Testing meconium, the first neonatal feces, for tobacco biomarkers offers objective evidence of prenatal tobacco exposure. However, relationships between the amount, frequency, and timing of cigarette smoking during gestation and tobacco biomarker meconium concentrations and neonatal outcomes are unclear. Methods: Eighty-seven pregnant women provided detailed self-reports of daily tobacco consumption throughout pregnancy. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine were quantified in neonatal meconium by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Among nonsmokers, all meconium specimens were negative, whereas nearly all meconium specimens were positive if the mother self-reported tobacco use into the third trimester. Tobacco biomarker concentrations were significantly albeit weakly correlated with mean cigarettes per day in the third trimester. Reduced birth weight, gestational age, or head circumference were observed if meconium contained one or more tobacco biomarkers, but deficits did not correlate with biomarker concentrations. Conclusion: While previously thought to reflect second and third trimester drug exposure, meconium appears to reliably identify only third trimester drug use. While a 10 ng/g nicotine, cotinine, or trans-3′-hydroxycotinine cutoff in meconium was previously proposed to differentiate tobacco-exposed from nonexposed or passively exposed neonates, improved maternal self-reporting techniques in this cohort suggest that a lower cutoff, equivalent to the analytic limits of quantification, is more appropriate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2010.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)658-664
Number of pages7
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume12
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 28 2010

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Meconium
Nicotine
Smoking
Mothers
Tobacco
Pregnancy
Third Pregnancy Trimester
Growth
Biomarkers
Tobacco Use
Cotinine
Second Pregnancy Trimester
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Growth and Development
Birth Weight
Feces
Tobacco Products
Liquid Chromatography
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Self Report

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Gray, Teresa R. ; Das Eiden, Rina ; Leonard, Kenneth E. ; Connors, Gerard ; Shisler, Shannon ; Huestis, Marilyn A. / Nicotine and metabolites in meconium as evidence of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and predictors of neonatal growth deficits. In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2010 ; Vol. 12, No. 6. pp. 658-664.
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Nicotine and metabolites in meconium as evidence of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and predictors of neonatal growth deficits. / Gray, Teresa R.; Das Eiden, Rina; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Connors, Gerard; Shisler, Shannon; Huestis, Marilyn A.

In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol. 12, No. 6, 28.04.2010, p. 658-664.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Nicotine and metabolites in meconium as evidence of maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and predictors of neonatal growth deficits

AU - Gray, Teresa R.

AU - Das Eiden, Rina

AU - Leonard, Kenneth E.

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AU - Huestis, Marilyn A.

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N2 - Introduction: Many women continue tobacco use during pregnancy despite known adverse consequences on neonatal growth and development. Testing meconium, the first neonatal feces, for tobacco biomarkers offers objective evidence of prenatal tobacco exposure. However, relationships between the amount, frequency, and timing of cigarette smoking during gestation and tobacco biomarker meconium concentrations and neonatal outcomes are unclear. Methods: Eighty-seven pregnant women provided detailed self-reports of daily tobacco consumption throughout pregnancy. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine were quantified in neonatal meconium by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Among nonsmokers, all meconium specimens were negative, whereas nearly all meconium specimens were positive if the mother self-reported tobacco use into the third trimester. Tobacco biomarker concentrations were significantly albeit weakly correlated with mean cigarettes per day in the third trimester. Reduced birth weight, gestational age, or head circumference were observed if meconium contained one or more tobacco biomarkers, but deficits did not correlate with biomarker concentrations. Conclusion: While previously thought to reflect second and third trimester drug exposure, meconium appears to reliably identify only third trimester drug use. While a 10 ng/g nicotine, cotinine, or trans-3′-hydroxycotinine cutoff in meconium was previously proposed to differentiate tobacco-exposed from nonexposed or passively exposed neonates, improved maternal self-reporting techniques in this cohort suggest that a lower cutoff, equivalent to the analytic limits of quantification, is more appropriate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2010.

AB - Introduction: Many women continue tobacco use during pregnancy despite known adverse consequences on neonatal growth and development. Testing meconium, the first neonatal feces, for tobacco biomarkers offers objective evidence of prenatal tobacco exposure. However, relationships between the amount, frequency, and timing of cigarette smoking during gestation and tobacco biomarker meconium concentrations and neonatal outcomes are unclear. Methods: Eighty-seven pregnant women provided detailed self-reports of daily tobacco consumption throughout pregnancy. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine were quantified in neonatal meconium by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Among nonsmokers, all meconium specimens were negative, whereas nearly all meconium specimens were positive if the mother self-reported tobacco use into the third trimester. Tobacco biomarker concentrations were significantly albeit weakly correlated with mean cigarettes per day in the third trimester. Reduced birth weight, gestational age, or head circumference were observed if meconium contained one or more tobacco biomarkers, but deficits did not correlate with biomarker concentrations. Conclusion: While previously thought to reflect second and third trimester drug exposure, meconium appears to reliably identify only third trimester drug use. While a 10 ng/g nicotine, cotinine, or trans-3′-hydroxycotinine cutoff in meconium was previously proposed to differentiate tobacco-exposed from nonexposed or passively exposed neonates, improved maternal self-reporting techniques in this cohort suggest that a lower cutoff, equivalent to the analytic limits of quantification, is more appropriate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2010.

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