Nicotine regulation refers to a smoker's maintenance of a characteristic level of nicotine in the body. It implies that changes in smoking behavior (i.e., compensation) will accompany either increases or decreases in nicotine availability. Research on regulation has been inconclusive because of (a) a failure to distinguish between regulation and compensation, (b) the use of indirect rather than direct measures of nicotine exposure, and (c) a number of methodological problems. The present review addresses these issues by (a) clarifying definitional ambiguities, (b) presenting a classification strategy that differentiates the indirect and direct evidence for regulation, (c) quantifying the direct evidence, and (d) discussing measurement and methodological problems. (76 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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