Nitrogen recommendations for corn

An on-the-go sensor compared with current recommendation methods

John P. Schmidt, Adam E. Dellinger, Douglas Brian Beegle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Precision agriculture technologies provide the capability to spatially vary N fertilizer applied to corn (Zea mays L.), potentially improving N use efficiency. The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving N recommendations based on crop canopy reflectance. Corn was grown at four field sites in each of 2 yr in Centre County, Pennsylvania. Preplant treatments included: zero fertilizer, 56 kg N ha-1, and manure. Split-plot treatments included the following N sidedress rates as NH4NO 3: 0, 22, 45, 90, 135, 180, and 280 kg N ha-1, and one at-planting N rate of 280 kg N ha-1. Light energy reflectance (590 and 880 nm), chlorophyll meter (SPAD) measurements, and the presidedress NO 3 test (PSNT) results were obtained at sidedress. The late-season stalk NO3 (LSSN) test was determined. The economic optimum nitrogen rate (EONR) was determined based on grain yield response to sidedress N rates. Relative green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) and relative SPAD were based on relative measurements from the zero sidedress treatment to the 280 kg N ha-1 at-planting treatment. The EONR from 24 preplant treatment-site combinations was related to relative GNDVI (R2 = 0.76), the PSNT (R2 = 0.78), relative SPAD (R2 = 0.72), and the LSSN test (R2 = 0.64), suggesting that relative GNDVI was as good an indicator of EONR as these other, more conventional tests. Because relative GNDVI can be obtained simultaneously with a sidedress N fertilizer application, the potential to accommodate within-field spatial and season-to-season temporal variability in N availability should improve N management decisions for corn production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)916-924
Number of pages9
JournalAgronomy Journal
Volume101
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2009

Fingerprint

corn
nitrogen
testing
reflectance
nitrogen fertilizers
planting
economic indicators
economics
methodology
precision agriculture
fertilizer application
Zea mays
grain yield
fertilizers
canopy
chlorophyll
normalized difference vegetation index
energy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

Schmidt, John P. ; Dellinger, Adam E. ; Beegle, Douglas Brian. / Nitrogen recommendations for corn : An on-the-go sensor compared with current recommendation methods. In: Agronomy Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 101, No. 4. pp. 916-924.
@article{4f34a5bbf7994a0199a015ba59460d49,
title = "Nitrogen recommendations for corn: An on-the-go sensor compared with current recommendation methods",
abstract = "Precision agriculture technologies provide the capability to spatially vary N fertilizer applied to corn (Zea mays L.), potentially improving N use efficiency. The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving N recommendations based on crop canopy reflectance. Corn was grown at four field sites in each of 2 yr in Centre County, Pennsylvania. Preplant treatments included: zero fertilizer, 56 kg N ha-1, and manure. Split-plot treatments included the following N sidedress rates as NH4NO 3: 0, 22, 45, 90, 135, 180, and 280 kg N ha-1, and one at-planting N rate of 280 kg N ha-1. Light energy reflectance (590 and 880 nm), chlorophyll meter (SPAD) measurements, and the presidedress NO 3 test (PSNT) results were obtained at sidedress. The late-season stalk NO3 (LSSN) test was determined. The economic optimum nitrogen rate (EONR) was determined based on grain yield response to sidedress N rates. Relative green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) and relative SPAD were based on relative measurements from the zero sidedress treatment to the 280 kg N ha-1 at-planting treatment. The EONR from 24 preplant treatment-site combinations was related to relative GNDVI (R2 = 0.76), the PSNT (R2 = 0.78), relative SPAD (R2 = 0.72), and the LSSN test (R2 = 0.64), suggesting that relative GNDVI was as good an indicator of EONR as these other, more conventional tests. Because relative GNDVI can be obtained simultaneously with a sidedress N fertilizer application, the potential to accommodate within-field spatial and season-to-season temporal variability in N availability should improve N management decisions for corn production.",
author = "Schmidt, {John P.} and Dellinger, {Adam E.} and Beegle, {Douglas Brian}",
year = "2009",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2134/agronj2008.0231x",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "101",
pages = "916--924",
journal = "Agronomy Journal",
issn = "0002-1962",
publisher = "American Society of Agronomy",
number = "4",

}

Nitrogen recommendations for corn : An on-the-go sensor compared with current recommendation methods. / Schmidt, John P.; Dellinger, Adam E.; Beegle, Douglas Brian.

In: Agronomy Journal, Vol. 101, No. 4, 01.07.2009, p. 916-924.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nitrogen recommendations for corn

T2 - An on-the-go sensor compared with current recommendation methods

AU - Schmidt, John P.

AU - Dellinger, Adam E.

AU - Beegle, Douglas Brian

PY - 2009/7/1

Y1 - 2009/7/1

N2 - Precision agriculture technologies provide the capability to spatially vary N fertilizer applied to corn (Zea mays L.), potentially improving N use efficiency. The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving N recommendations based on crop canopy reflectance. Corn was grown at four field sites in each of 2 yr in Centre County, Pennsylvania. Preplant treatments included: zero fertilizer, 56 kg N ha-1, and manure. Split-plot treatments included the following N sidedress rates as NH4NO 3: 0, 22, 45, 90, 135, 180, and 280 kg N ha-1, and one at-planting N rate of 280 kg N ha-1. Light energy reflectance (590 and 880 nm), chlorophyll meter (SPAD) measurements, and the presidedress NO 3 test (PSNT) results were obtained at sidedress. The late-season stalk NO3 (LSSN) test was determined. The economic optimum nitrogen rate (EONR) was determined based on grain yield response to sidedress N rates. Relative green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) and relative SPAD were based on relative measurements from the zero sidedress treatment to the 280 kg N ha-1 at-planting treatment. The EONR from 24 preplant treatment-site combinations was related to relative GNDVI (R2 = 0.76), the PSNT (R2 = 0.78), relative SPAD (R2 = 0.72), and the LSSN test (R2 = 0.64), suggesting that relative GNDVI was as good an indicator of EONR as these other, more conventional tests. Because relative GNDVI can be obtained simultaneously with a sidedress N fertilizer application, the potential to accommodate within-field spatial and season-to-season temporal variability in N availability should improve N management decisions for corn production.

AB - Precision agriculture technologies provide the capability to spatially vary N fertilizer applied to corn (Zea mays L.), potentially improving N use efficiency. The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving N recommendations based on crop canopy reflectance. Corn was grown at four field sites in each of 2 yr in Centre County, Pennsylvania. Preplant treatments included: zero fertilizer, 56 kg N ha-1, and manure. Split-plot treatments included the following N sidedress rates as NH4NO 3: 0, 22, 45, 90, 135, 180, and 280 kg N ha-1, and one at-planting N rate of 280 kg N ha-1. Light energy reflectance (590 and 880 nm), chlorophyll meter (SPAD) measurements, and the presidedress NO 3 test (PSNT) results were obtained at sidedress. The late-season stalk NO3 (LSSN) test was determined. The economic optimum nitrogen rate (EONR) was determined based on grain yield response to sidedress N rates. Relative green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) and relative SPAD were based on relative measurements from the zero sidedress treatment to the 280 kg N ha-1 at-planting treatment. The EONR from 24 preplant treatment-site combinations was related to relative GNDVI (R2 = 0.76), the PSNT (R2 = 0.78), relative SPAD (R2 = 0.72), and the LSSN test (R2 = 0.64), suggesting that relative GNDVI was as good an indicator of EONR as these other, more conventional tests. Because relative GNDVI can be obtained simultaneously with a sidedress N fertilizer application, the potential to accommodate within-field spatial and season-to-season temporal variability in N availability should improve N management decisions for corn production.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=68149176630&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=68149176630&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2134/agronj2008.0231x

DO - 10.2134/agronj2008.0231x

M3 - Article

VL - 101

SP - 916

EP - 924

JO - Agronomy Journal

JF - Agronomy Journal

SN - 0002-1962

IS - 4

ER -