No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants

Jessica Ericson, Joshua Thaden, Heather R. Cross, Reese H. Clark, Vance G. Fowler, Daniel K. Benjamin, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, Christoph P. Hornik, P. Brian Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is the most common cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized infants. CoNS BSI is most reliably treated with vancomycin; however, concerns about side effects and promoting resistance often delay empirical vancomycin therapy until culture results become available. Methods: All infants with CoNS BSI discharged from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997 to 2012 were identified. Empirical vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure on the day of the first positive blood culture. Delayed vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure 1-3 days after the first positive blood culture. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects for site to evaluate the association between the use of empirical vancomycin therapy versus delayed vancomycin therapy and 30-day mortality, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, postnatal age on the day of the first positive culture, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day the first positive culture was obtained. Results: A total of 4364 infants with CoNS BSI were identified; 2848 (65%) were treated with empirical vancomycin. The median postnatal age at first positive culture was 14 days (interquartile range: 9, 21). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was similar for infants treated with empirical vancomycin and infants treated with delayed vancomycin therapy [166/2848 (6%) vs. 69/1516 (4%); P = 0.08]. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality on multivariable analysis [odds ratio: 1.14 (0.84, 1.56)]. The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer for infants with delayed vancomycin therapy [4 days (interquartile range: 2, 6) vs. 3 days (2, 5); P < 0.0001]. Conclusions: The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer in infants with CoNS BSI who received delayed vancomycin therapy. Despite this finding, empirical vancomycin therapy for CoNS BSI was not associated with improved mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)371-375
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 21 2015

Fingerprint

Staphylococcal Infections
Coagulase
Vancomycin
Staphylococcus
Therapeutics
Infection
Mortality
Bacteremia
Gestational Age
Neonatal Intensive Care Units
Mechanical Ventilators

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Ericson, Jessica ; Thaden, Joshua ; Cross, Heather R. ; Clark, Reese H. ; Fowler, Vance G. ; Benjamin, Daniel K. ; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael ; Hornik, Christoph P. ; Smith, P. Brian. / No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants. In: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2015 ; Vol. 34, No. 4. pp. 371-375.
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title = "No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants",
abstract = "Background: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is the most common cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized infants. CoNS BSI is most reliably treated with vancomycin; however, concerns about side effects and promoting resistance often delay empirical vancomycin therapy until culture results become available. Methods: All infants with CoNS BSI discharged from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997 to 2012 were identified. Empirical vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure on the day of the first positive blood culture. Delayed vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure 1-3 days after the first positive blood culture. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects for site to evaluate the association between the use of empirical vancomycin therapy versus delayed vancomycin therapy and 30-day mortality, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, postnatal age on the day of the first positive culture, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day the first positive culture was obtained. Results: A total of 4364 infants with CoNS BSI were identified; 2848 (65{\%}) were treated with empirical vancomycin. The median postnatal age at first positive culture was 14 days (interquartile range: 9, 21). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was similar for infants treated with empirical vancomycin and infants treated with delayed vancomycin therapy [166/2848 (6{\%}) vs. 69/1516 (4{\%}); P = 0.08]. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality on multivariable analysis [odds ratio: 1.14 (0.84, 1.56)]. The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer for infants with delayed vancomycin therapy [4 days (interquartile range: 2, 6) vs. 3 days (2, 5); P < 0.0001]. Conclusions: The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer in infants with CoNS BSI who received delayed vancomycin therapy. Despite this finding, empirical vancomycin therapy for CoNS BSI was not associated with improved mortality.",
author = "Jessica Ericson and Joshua Thaden and Cross, {Heather R.} and Clark, {Reese H.} and Fowler, {Vance G.} and Benjamin, {Daniel K.} and Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez and Hornik, {Christoph P.} and Smith, {P. Brian}",
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Ericson, J, Thaden, J, Cross, HR, Clark, RH, Fowler, VG, Benjamin, DK, Cohen-Wolkowiez, M, Hornik, CP & Smith, PB 2015, 'No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants', Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 371-375. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000573

No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants. / Ericson, Jessica; Thaden, Joshua; Cross, Heather R.; Clark, Reese H.; Fowler, Vance G.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Hornik, Christoph P.; Smith, P. Brian.

In: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 34, No. 4, 21.04.2015, p. 371-375.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - No survival benefit with empirical vancomycin therapy for coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in infants

AU - Ericson, Jessica

AU - Thaden, Joshua

AU - Cross, Heather R.

AU - Clark, Reese H.

AU - Fowler, Vance G.

AU - Benjamin, Daniel K.

AU - Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

AU - Hornik, Christoph P.

AU - Smith, P. Brian

PY - 2015/4/21

Y1 - 2015/4/21

N2 - Background: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is the most common cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized infants. CoNS BSI is most reliably treated with vancomycin; however, concerns about side effects and promoting resistance often delay empirical vancomycin therapy until culture results become available. Methods: All infants with CoNS BSI discharged from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997 to 2012 were identified. Empirical vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure on the day of the first positive blood culture. Delayed vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure 1-3 days after the first positive blood culture. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects for site to evaluate the association between the use of empirical vancomycin therapy versus delayed vancomycin therapy and 30-day mortality, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, postnatal age on the day of the first positive culture, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day the first positive culture was obtained. Results: A total of 4364 infants with CoNS BSI were identified; 2848 (65%) were treated with empirical vancomycin. The median postnatal age at first positive culture was 14 days (interquartile range: 9, 21). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was similar for infants treated with empirical vancomycin and infants treated with delayed vancomycin therapy [166/2848 (6%) vs. 69/1516 (4%); P = 0.08]. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality on multivariable analysis [odds ratio: 1.14 (0.84, 1.56)]. The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer for infants with delayed vancomycin therapy [4 days (interquartile range: 2, 6) vs. 3 days (2, 5); P < 0.0001]. Conclusions: The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer in infants with CoNS BSI who received delayed vancomycin therapy. Despite this finding, empirical vancomycin therapy for CoNS BSI was not associated with improved mortality.

AB - Background: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is the most common cause of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized infants. CoNS BSI is most reliably treated with vancomycin; however, concerns about side effects and promoting resistance often delay empirical vancomycin therapy until culture results become available. Methods: All infants with CoNS BSI discharged from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group from 1997 to 2012 were identified. Empirical vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure on the day of the first positive blood culture. Delayed vancomycin therapy was defined as vancomycin exposure 1-3 days after the first positive blood culture. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects for site to evaluate the association between the use of empirical vancomycin therapy versus delayed vancomycin therapy and 30-day mortality, controlling for gestational age, small-for-gestational age status, postnatal age on the day of the first positive culture, oxygen requirement, ventilator support and inotropic support on the day the first positive culture was obtained. Results: A total of 4364 infants with CoNS BSI were identified; 2848 (65%) were treated with empirical vancomycin. The median postnatal age at first positive culture was 14 days (interquartile range: 9, 21). Unadjusted 30-day mortality was similar for infants treated with empirical vancomycin and infants treated with delayed vancomycin therapy [166/2848 (6%) vs. 69/1516 (4%); P = 0.08]. There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality on multivariable analysis [odds ratio: 1.14 (0.84, 1.56)]. The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer for infants with delayed vancomycin therapy [4 days (interquartile range: 2, 6) vs. 3 days (2, 5); P < 0.0001]. Conclusions: The median duration of bacteremia was 1 day longer in infants with CoNS BSI who received delayed vancomycin therapy. Despite this finding, empirical vancomycin therapy for CoNS BSI was not associated with improved mortality.

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