Background and Aims: Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may undergo a total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) to surgically treat their disease. Inflammation of the ileal pouch, termed pouchitis, is uncommon in FAP patients but prevalent in patients who received IPAA for ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods and Results: We report on two FAP siblings, living in the same household, who underwent IPAA surgery within one week of each other. Their mother also had an IPAA for FAP. One sibling developed pouchitis while his brother and mother have remained pouchitis-free. We investigated the genetic and microbial factors that might explain the development of pouchitis in the one sibling. We surveyed DNA isolated from the two brothers and their parents for NOD2 IBD risk variants by Sanger sequencing. The composition of mucosa-associated bacteria was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing on terminal ileum and rectal tissue collected at the time of surgical resection from the two brothers. The sibling with pouchitis inherited the IBD-associated risk alleles for NOD2 (rs17221417 and rs2076756) from his healthy father. Both the mother and unaffected brother lacked these variants. Microbiome sequencing of the terminal ileum and rectum found reduced levels of potentially 'beneficial' bacteria (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides, and Ruminococcaceae) in the sibling with pouchitis relative to his brother. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the NOD2 signaling pathway may contribute to intrinsic bacterial dysbiosis which is pre-existing and which may then predispose individuals to pouchitis after IPAA surgery.
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