Noise predictions for high subsonic single and dual-stream jets in flight

Swati Saxena, Philip John Morris

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents numerical jet noise predictions for single and dual-stream jets in ight. The goal of the present work is to study flight effects in high subsonic Mach number jets. To perform the turbulent flow simulation, a parallel unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS)-Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver is used. A modified Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model is used to generate the turbulent flow downstream of the nozzle. A structured multi-block grid approach is used to attain a reasonable grid resolution with high order spatial discretization. Solutions of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW- H) equation are used to predict the jet noise spectra at far-field observer locations. The flow parameters and the noise prediction results are compared with PIV and microphone measurements. The computational domains have grid points ranging from 5 million to 9 million and include 14 to 26 blocks. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9. The parallel flow constitutes the flght effect which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0 to 0.28. The statistical properties of the turbulence and heated jet effects (TTR = 2.7) are studied and related to the noise characteristics of the jet. Both flow and noise predictions show good agreement with the PIV and microphone measurements. The flight velocity exponent, m is calculated from the noise reduction in overall sound pressure levels and relative velocity (10Log10[Vj=(Vj - Vcf)]) at all observer angles. There is a distinct variation of the flight velocity exponent with angle: it increases gradually from 3.0 at lower polar angles (relative to the inlet) ~ 50 to 105° to about 6.0 at ~ 110 to 150°. A scaling method using the exponent is shown to provide good collapse of the spectra obtained in forward flight.The coaxial nozzle is a Boeing designed convergent nozzle with an area ratio of As=Ap = 3.0, where the primary nozzle extends beyond the secondary nozzle. This conflguration is representative of the large turbofan engines in commercial service. The jet flow conditions are: Mpj = 0.9 and Msj = 0.95 with heated core flow, TTRp = 2.26 and unheated fan flow. Only one co-flow case with Mcf = 0.2 is used. The subscripts p and s represent the primary (core) nozzle and the secondary (fan) nozzle, respectively. The preliminary flight effect findings for the dual-stream jet suggest a different trend of ight velocity exponentas compared to single stream jet, though only limited predictions are available.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference)
StatePublished - 2012
Event18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference 2012 (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference) - , United States
Duration: Jun 4 2012Jun 6 2012

Other

Other18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference 2012 (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference)
CountryUnited States
Period6/4/126/6/12

Fingerprint

noise prediction
convergent nozzles
Nozzles
nozzles
flight
Mach number
jet aircraft noise
exponents
particle image velocimetry
microphones
fans
turbulent flow
coaxial nozzles
multiblock grids
grids
turbofan engines
core flow
Microphones
parallel flow
jet flow

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

Cite this

Saxena, S., & Morris, P. J. (2012). Noise predictions for high subsonic single and dual-stream jets in flight. In 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference)
Saxena, Swati ; Morris, Philip John. / Noise predictions for high subsonic single and dual-stream jets in flight. 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference). 2012.
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title = "Noise predictions for high subsonic single and dual-stream jets in flight",
abstract = "This paper presents numerical jet noise predictions for single and dual-stream jets in ight. The goal of the present work is to study flight effects in high subsonic Mach number jets. To perform the turbulent flow simulation, a parallel unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS)-Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver is used. A modified Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model is used to generate the turbulent flow downstream of the nozzle. A structured multi-block grid approach is used to attain a reasonable grid resolution with high order spatial discretization. Solutions of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW- H) equation are used to predict the jet noise spectra at far-field observer locations. The flow parameters and the noise prediction results are compared with PIV and microphone measurements. The computational domains have grid points ranging from 5 million to 9 million and include 14 to 26 blocks. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9. The parallel flow constitutes the flght effect which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0 to 0.28. The statistical properties of the turbulence and heated jet effects (TTR = 2.7) are studied and related to the noise characteristics of the jet. Both flow and noise predictions show good agreement with the PIV and microphone measurements. The flight velocity exponent, m is calculated from the noise reduction in overall sound pressure levels and relative velocity (10Log10[Vj=(Vj - Vcf)]) at all observer angles. There is a distinct variation of the flight velocity exponent with angle: it increases gradually from 3.0 at lower polar angles (relative to the inlet) ~ 50 to 105° to about 6.0 at ~ 110 to 150°. A scaling method using the exponent is shown to provide good collapse of the spectra obtained in forward flight.The coaxial nozzle is a Boeing designed convergent nozzle with an area ratio of As=Ap = 3.0, where the primary nozzle extends beyond the secondary nozzle. This conflguration is representative of the large turbofan engines in commercial service. The jet flow conditions are: Mpj = 0.9 and Msj = 0.95 with heated core flow, TTRp = 2.26 and unheated fan flow. Only one co-flow case with Mcf = 0.2 is used. The subscripts p and s represent the primary (core) nozzle and the secondary (fan) nozzle, respectively. The preliminary flight effect findings for the dual-stream jet suggest a different trend of ight velocity exponentas compared to single stream jet, though only limited predictions are available.",
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year = "2012",
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Saxena, S & Morris, PJ 2012, Noise predictions for high subsonic single and dual-stream jets in flight. in 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference). 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference 2012 (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference), United States, 6/4/12.

Noise predictions for high subsonic single and dual-stream jets in flight. / Saxena, Swati; Morris, Philip John.

18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference). 2012.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AU - Saxena, Swati

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N2 - This paper presents numerical jet noise predictions for single and dual-stream jets in ight. The goal of the present work is to study flight effects in high subsonic Mach number jets. To perform the turbulent flow simulation, a parallel unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS)-Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver is used. A modified Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model is used to generate the turbulent flow downstream of the nozzle. A structured multi-block grid approach is used to attain a reasonable grid resolution with high order spatial discretization. Solutions of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW- H) equation are used to predict the jet noise spectra at far-field observer locations. The flow parameters and the noise prediction results are compared with PIV and microphone measurements. The computational domains have grid points ranging from 5 million to 9 million and include 14 to 26 blocks. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9. The parallel flow constitutes the flght effect which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0 to 0.28. The statistical properties of the turbulence and heated jet effects (TTR = 2.7) are studied and related to the noise characteristics of the jet. Both flow and noise predictions show good agreement with the PIV and microphone measurements. The flight velocity exponent, m is calculated from the noise reduction in overall sound pressure levels and relative velocity (10Log10[Vj=(Vj - Vcf)]) at all observer angles. There is a distinct variation of the flight velocity exponent with angle: it increases gradually from 3.0 at lower polar angles (relative to the inlet) ~ 50 to 105° to about 6.0 at ~ 110 to 150°. A scaling method using the exponent is shown to provide good collapse of the spectra obtained in forward flight.The coaxial nozzle is a Boeing designed convergent nozzle with an area ratio of As=Ap = 3.0, where the primary nozzle extends beyond the secondary nozzle. This conflguration is representative of the large turbofan engines in commercial service. The jet flow conditions are: Mpj = 0.9 and Msj = 0.95 with heated core flow, TTRp = 2.26 and unheated fan flow. Only one co-flow case with Mcf = 0.2 is used. The subscripts p and s represent the primary (core) nozzle and the secondary (fan) nozzle, respectively. The preliminary flight effect findings for the dual-stream jet suggest a different trend of ight velocity exponentas compared to single stream jet, though only limited predictions are available.

AB - This paper presents numerical jet noise predictions for single and dual-stream jets in ight. The goal of the present work is to study flight effects in high subsonic Mach number jets. To perform the turbulent flow simulation, a parallel unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS)-Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver is used. A modified Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model is used to generate the turbulent flow downstream of the nozzle. A structured multi-block grid approach is used to attain a reasonable grid resolution with high order spatial discretization. Solutions of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW- H) equation are used to predict the jet noise spectra at far-field observer locations. The flow parameters and the noise prediction results are compared with PIV and microphone measurements. The computational domains have grid points ranging from 5 million to 9 million and include 14 to 26 blocks. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9. The parallel flow constitutes the flght effect which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0 to 0.28. The statistical properties of the turbulence and heated jet effects (TTR = 2.7) are studied and related to the noise characteristics of the jet. Both flow and noise predictions show good agreement with the PIV and microphone measurements. The flight velocity exponent, m is calculated from the noise reduction in overall sound pressure levels and relative velocity (10Log10[Vj=(Vj - Vcf)]) at all observer angles. There is a distinct variation of the flight velocity exponent with angle: it increases gradually from 3.0 at lower polar angles (relative to the inlet) ~ 50 to 105° to about 6.0 at ~ 110 to 150°. A scaling method using the exponent is shown to provide good collapse of the spectra obtained in forward flight.The coaxial nozzle is a Boeing designed convergent nozzle with an area ratio of As=Ap = 3.0, where the primary nozzle extends beyond the secondary nozzle. This conflguration is representative of the large turbofan engines in commercial service. The jet flow conditions are: Mpj = 0.9 and Msj = 0.95 with heated core flow, TTRp = 2.26 and unheated fan flow. Only one co-flow case with Mcf = 0.2 is used. The subscripts p and s represent the primary (core) nozzle and the secondary (fan) nozzle, respectively. The preliminary flight effect findings for the dual-stream jet suggest a different trend of ight velocity exponentas compared to single stream jet, though only limited predictions are available.

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Saxena S, Morris PJ. Noise predictions for high subsonic single and dual-stream jets in flight. In 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference). 2012