Objective: To identify countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that have not yet achieved at least 90 % universal salt iodization and factors associated with the consumption of non-iodized salt among women of reproductive age.Design: A cross-sectional study using data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The presence of iodine in household salt (iodized or non-iodized), which was tested during the survey process, was the study outcome. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine independent factors associated with the consumption of non-iodized salt among women of reproductive age.Setting: There were eleven countries in SSA that participated in the DHS since 2015 and measured the presence of iodine in household salt.Participants: Women (n 108 318) aged 15-49 years.Results: Countries with the highest rate of non-iodized salt were Senegal (29·5 %) followed by Tanzania (21·3 %), Ethiopia (14·0 %), Malawi (11·6 %) and Angola (10·8 %). The rate of non-iodized salt was less than 1 % in Rwanda (0·3 %), Uganda (0·5 %) and Burundi (0·8 %). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression showed that women were more likely to be using non-iodized salt (adjusted OR; 95 % CI) if they were poor (1·62; 1·48, 1·78), pregnant (1·16; 1·04, 1·29), aged 15-24 years (v. older: 1·14; 1·04, 1·24) and were not literate (1·14; 1·06, 1·23).Conclusions: The use of non-iodized salt varies among SSA countries. The higher level of use of non-iodized salt among poor, young women and pregnant women is particularly concerning.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health