An investigation of tunnel linings is performed at two tunnels in the US using complimentary noncontact techniques: air-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR), and a vehicle-mounted scanning system (SPACETEC) that combines laser, visual, and infrared thermography scanning methods. This paper shows that a combination of such techniques can maximize inspection coverage in a comprehensive and efficient manner. Since ground-truth is typically not available in public tunnel field evaluations, the noncontact techniques used are compared withtwo reliable in-depth contact nondestructive testing methods: ground-coupled GPR and ultrasonic tomography. The noncontact techniques are used to identify and locate the reinforcement mesh, structural steel ribs, internal layer interfaces, shallow delamination, and tile debonding. It is shown that this combination of methods can be used synergistically to provide tunnel owners with a comprehensive and efficient approach for monitoring tunnel lining conditions.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Civil and Structural Engineering
- Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality