We summarize in the present work exact results obtained for Tonks-Girardeau gases on one-dimensional optical lattices both for the ground state and nonequilibrium dynamics. On the theoretical side, impenetrable bosons offer the opportunity to study strongly interacting systems in one-dimensional lattices exactly, by means of the Jordan-Wigner transformation, and hence contribute to the topic of strong correlations at the center of interest in both condensed matter physics and quantum gases. This motivation is further enhanced by recent experimental realizations of such systems with ultracold atoms. After having shown their universal properties in equilibrium, we concentrate on their nonequilibrium dynamics. It will be shown that, starting from a pure Fock state, quasi-long-range correlations develop dynamically and lead to the formation of quasicondensates with a momentum determined by the underlying lattice. We expect this effect to be relevant for atom lasers with full control of the wavelength. Then, we will show that the free evolution of an initially confined Tonks-Girardeau gas leads to a momentum distribution that approaches at long times that of the equivalent fermionic system, giving rise to a bosonic gas with a Fermi edge, and hence a fermionization that can only be obtained out of equilibrium. Remarkably, although the momentum distribution function of the Tonks-Girardeau gas becomes equal to the one of the fermions, no loss in coherence is observed in the system, as reflected by a large occupation of eigenstates of the one-particle density matrix.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering