### Abstract

The electronegativity equalization model (EEM) has been combined with a point-dipole interaction model to obtain a molecular mechanics model consisting of atomic charges, atomic dipole moments, and two-atom relay tensors to describe molecular dipole moments and molecular dipole-dipole polarizabilities. The EEM has been phrased as an atom-atom charge-transfer model allowing for a modification of the charge-transfer terms to avoid that the polarizability approaches infinity for two particles at infinite distance and for long chains. In the present work, these shortcomings have been resolved by adding an energy term for transporting charges through individual atoms. A Gaussian distribution is adopted for the atomic charge distributions, resulting in a damping of the electrostatic interactions at short distances. Assuming that an interatomic exchange term may be described as the overlap between two electronic charge distributions, the EEM has also been extended by a short-range exchange term. The result is a molecular mechanics model where the difference of charge transfer in insulating and metallic systems is modeled regarding the difference in bond length between different types of system. For example, the model is capable of modeling charge transfer in both alkanes and alkenes with alternating double bonds with the same set of carbon parameters only relying on the difference in bond length between carbon σ - and π -bonds. Analytical results have been obtained for the polarizability of a long linear chain. These results show that the model is capable of describing the polarizability scaling both linearly and nonlinearly with the size of the system. Similarly, a linear chain with an end atom with a high electronegativity has been analyzed analytically. The dipole moment of this model system can either be independent of the length or increase linearly with the length of the chain. In addition, the model has been parametrized for alkane and alkene chains with data from density functional theory calculations, where the polarizability behaves differently with the chain length. For the molecular dipole moment, the same two systems have been studied with an aldehyde end group. Both the molecular polarizability and the dipole moment are well described as a function of the chain length for both alkane and alkene chains demonstrating the power of the presented model.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Article number | 044101 |

Journal | Journal of Chemical Physics |

Volume | 131 |

Issue number | 4 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - Aug 11 2009 |

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### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

### Cite this

*Journal of Chemical Physics*,

*131*(4), [044101]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3166142

}

*Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 131, no. 4, 044101. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3166142

**Nonmetallic electronegativity equalization and point-dipole interaction model including exchange interactions for molecular dipole moments and polarizabilities.** / Smalø, Hans S.; Åstrand, Per Olof; Jensen, Lasse.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nonmetallic electronegativity equalization and point-dipole interaction model including exchange interactions for molecular dipole moments and polarizabilities

AU - Smalø, Hans S.

AU - Åstrand, Per Olof

AU - Jensen, Lasse

PY - 2009/8/11

Y1 - 2009/8/11

N2 - The electronegativity equalization model (EEM) has been combined with a point-dipole interaction model to obtain a molecular mechanics model consisting of atomic charges, atomic dipole moments, and two-atom relay tensors to describe molecular dipole moments and molecular dipole-dipole polarizabilities. The EEM has been phrased as an atom-atom charge-transfer model allowing for a modification of the charge-transfer terms to avoid that the polarizability approaches infinity for two particles at infinite distance and for long chains. In the present work, these shortcomings have been resolved by adding an energy term for transporting charges through individual atoms. A Gaussian distribution is adopted for the atomic charge distributions, resulting in a damping of the electrostatic interactions at short distances. Assuming that an interatomic exchange term may be described as the overlap between two electronic charge distributions, the EEM has also been extended by a short-range exchange term. The result is a molecular mechanics model where the difference of charge transfer in insulating and metallic systems is modeled regarding the difference in bond length between different types of system. For example, the model is capable of modeling charge transfer in both alkanes and alkenes with alternating double bonds with the same set of carbon parameters only relying on the difference in bond length between carbon σ - and π -bonds. Analytical results have been obtained for the polarizability of a long linear chain. These results show that the model is capable of describing the polarizability scaling both linearly and nonlinearly with the size of the system. Similarly, a linear chain with an end atom with a high electronegativity has been analyzed analytically. The dipole moment of this model system can either be independent of the length or increase linearly with the length of the chain. In addition, the model has been parametrized for alkane and alkene chains with data from density functional theory calculations, where the polarizability behaves differently with the chain length. For the molecular dipole moment, the same two systems have been studied with an aldehyde end group. Both the molecular polarizability and the dipole moment are well described as a function of the chain length for both alkane and alkene chains demonstrating the power of the presented model.

AB - The electronegativity equalization model (EEM) has been combined with a point-dipole interaction model to obtain a molecular mechanics model consisting of atomic charges, atomic dipole moments, and two-atom relay tensors to describe molecular dipole moments and molecular dipole-dipole polarizabilities. The EEM has been phrased as an atom-atom charge-transfer model allowing for a modification of the charge-transfer terms to avoid that the polarizability approaches infinity for two particles at infinite distance and for long chains. In the present work, these shortcomings have been resolved by adding an energy term for transporting charges through individual atoms. A Gaussian distribution is adopted for the atomic charge distributions, resulting in a damping of the electrostatic interactions at short distances. Assuming that an interatomic exchange term may be described as the overlap between two electronic charge distributions, the EEM has also been extended by a short-range exchange term. The result is a molecular mechanics model where the difference of charge transfer in insulating and metallic systems is modeled regarding the difference in bond length between different types of system. For example, the model is capable of modeling charge transfer in both alkanes and alkenes with alternating double bonds with the same set of carbon parameters only relying on the difference in bond length between carbon σ - and π -bonds. Analytical results have been obtained for the polarizability of a long linear chain. These results show that the model is capable of describing the polarizability scaling both linearly and nonlinearly with the size of the system. Similarly, a linear chain with an end atom with a high electronegativity has been analyzed analytically. The dipole moment of this model system can either be independent of the length or increase linearly with the length of the chain. In addition, the model has been parametrized for alkane and alkene chains with data from density functional theory calculations, where the polarizability behaves differently with the chain length. For the molecular dipole moment, the same two systems have been studied with an aldehyde end group. Both the molecular polarizability and the dipole moment are well described as a function of the chain length for both alkane and alkene chains demonstrating the power of the presented model.

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U2 - 10.1063/1.3166142

DO - 10.1063/1.3166142

M3 - Article

C2 - 19655831

AN - SCOPUS:68249096948

VL - 131

JO - Journal of Chemical Physics

JF - Journal of Chemical Physics

SN - 0021-9606

IS - 4

M1 - 044101

ER -