Nonmetallic electronegativity equalization and point-dipole interaction model including exchange interactions for molecular dipole moments and polarizabilities

Hans S. Smalø, Per Olof Åstrand, Lasse Jensen

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Abstract

The electronegativity equalization model (EEM) has been combined with a point-dipole interaction model to obtain a molecular mechanics model consisting of atomic charges, atomic dipole moments, and two-atom relay tensors to describe molecular dipole moments and molecular dipole-dipole polarizabilities. The EEM has been phrased as an atom-atom charge-transfer model allowing for a modification of the charge-transfer terms to avoid that the polarizability approaches infinity for two particles at infinite distance and for long chains. In the present work, these shortcomings have been resolved by adding an energy term for transporting charges through individual atoms. A Gaussian distribution is adopted for the atomic charge distributions, resulting in a damping of the electrostatic interactions at short distances. Assuming that an interatomic exchange term may be described as the overlap between two electronic charge distributions, the EEM has also been extended by a short-range exchange term. The result is a molecular mechanics model where the difference of charge transfer in insulating and metallic systems is modeled regarding the difference in bond length between different types of system. For example, the model is capable of modeling charge transfer in both alkanes and alkenes with alternating double bonds with the same set of carbon parameters only relying on the difference in bond length between carbon σ - and π -bonds. Analytical results have been obtained for the polarizability of a long linear chain. These results show that the model is capable of describing the polarizability scaling both linearly and nonlinearly with the size of the system. Similarly, a linear chain with an end atom with a high electronegativity has been analyzed analytically. The dipole moment of this model system can either be independent of the length or increase linearly with the length of the chain. In addition, the model has been parametrized for alkane and alkene chains with data from density functional theory calculations, where the polarizability behaves differently with the chain length. For the molecular dipole moment, the same two systems have been studied with an aldehyde end group. Both the molecular polarizability and the dipole moment are well described as a function of the chain length for both alkane and alkene chains demonstrating the power of the presented model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number044101
JournalJournal of Chemical Physics
Volume131
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 11 2009

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Electronegativity
Exchange interactions
Dipole moment
dipole moments
dipoles
interactions
Alkanes
Charge transfer
Alkenes
Atoms
charge transfer
alkanes
alkenes
Molecular mechanics
Charge distribution
atoms
Bond length
Chain length
charge distribution
Carbon

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Nonmetallic electronegativity equalization and point-dipole interaction model including exchange interactions for molecular dipole moments and polarizabilities",
abstract = "The electronegativity equalization model (EEM) has been combined with a point-dipole interaction model to obtain a molecular mechanics model consisting of atomic charges, atomic dipole moments, and two-atom relay tensors to describe molecular dipole moments and molecular dipole-dipole polarizabilities. The EEM has been phrased as an atom-atom charge-transfer model allowing for a modification of the charge-transfer terms to avoid that the polarizability approaches infinity for two particles at infinite distance and for long chains. In the present work, these shortcomings have been resolved by adding an energy term for transporting charges through individual atoms. A Gaussian distribution is adopted for the atomic charge distributions, resulting in a damping of the electrostatic interactions at short distances. Assuming that an interatomic exchange term may be described as the overlap between two electronic charge distributions, the EEM has also been extended by a short-range exchange term. The result is a molecular mechanics model where the difference of charge transfer in insulating and metallic systems is modeled regarding the difference in bond length between different types of system. For example, the model is capable of modeling charge transfer in both alkanes and alkenes with alternating double bonds with the same set of carbon parameters only relying on the difference in bond length between carbon σ - and π -bonds. Analytical results have been obtained for the polarizability of a long linear chain. These results show that the model is capable of describing the polarizability scaling both linearly and nonlinearly with the size of the system. Similarly, a linear chain with an end atom with a high electronegativity has been analyzed analytically. The dipole moment of this model system can either be independent of the length or increase linearly with the length of the chain. In addition, the model has been parametrized for alkane and alkene chains with data from density functional theory calculations, where the polarizability behaves differently with the chain length. For the molecular dipole moment, the same two systems have been studied with an aldehyde end group. Both the molecular polarizability and the dipole moment are well described as a function of the chain length for both alkane and alkene chains demonstrating the power of the presented model.",
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