Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers

Q. Li, A. Y. Polyakov, M. Skowronski, E. K. Sanchez, M. J. Loboda, Mark Andrew Fanton, T. Bogart, R. D. Gamble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Chemical elemental analysis, temperature-dependent Hall measurements, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and contactless resistivity mapping were performed on undoped semi-insulating (SI) and lightly nitrogen-doped conducting 6H-SiC crystals grown by physical vapor transport (PVT). Resistivity maps of commercial semi-insulating SiC wafers revealed resistivity variations across the wafers between one and two orders of magnitude. Two major types of variations were identified. First is the U-shape distribution with low resistivity in the center and high in the periphery of the wafer. The second type had an inverted U-shape distribution. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry measurements of the distribution of nitrogen concentration along the growth axis and across the wafers sliced from different locations of lightly nitrogen-doped 6H-SiC boules were conducted. The measured nitrogen concentration gradually decreased along the growth direction and from the center to the periphery of the wafers. This change gives rise to the U-like distribution of resistivity in wafers of undoped SI-SiC. The concentrations of deep electron traps exhibited similar dependence. Compensation of nitrogen donors by these traps can result in the inverted U-like distribution of resistivity. Possible reasons for the observed nonuniformities include formation of a (0001) facet in PVT growth coupled with orientation-dependent nitrogen incorporation, systematic changes of the gas phase composition, and increase of the deposition temperature during boule growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number113705
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Volume97
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2005

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nonuniformity
wafers
nitrogen
electrical resistivity
traps
boules
vapors
chemical analysis
secondary ion mass spectrometry
flat surfaces
vapor phases
conduction
temperature
spectroscopy
crystals
electrons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Li, Q., Polyakov, A. Y., Skowronski, M., Sanchez, E. K., Loboda, M. J., Fanton, M. A., ... Gamble, R. D. (2005). Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers. Journal of Applied Physics, 97(11), [113705]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1921340
Li, Q. ; Polyakov, A. Y. ; Skowronski, M. ; Sanchez, E. K. ; Loboda, M. J. ; Fanton, Mark Andrew ; Bogart, T. ; Gamble, R. D. / Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers. In: Journal of Applied Physics. 2005 ; Vol. 97, No. 11.
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Li, Q, Polyakov, AY, Skowronski, M, Sanchez, EK, Loboda, MJ, Fanton, MA, Bogart, T & Gamble, RD 2005, 'Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers', Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 97, no. 11, 113705. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1921340

Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers. / Li, Q.; Polyakov, A. Y.; Skowronski, M.; Sanchez, E. K.; Loboda, M. J.; Fanton, Mark Andrew; Bogart, T.; Gamble, R. D.

In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, No. 11, 113705, 01.07.2005.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Chemical elemental analysis, temperature-dependent Hall measurements, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and contactless resistivity mapping were performed on undoped semi-insulating (SI) and lightly nitrogen-doped conducting 6H-SiC crystals grown by physical vapor transport (PVT). Resistivity maps of commercial semi-insulating SiC wafers revealed resistivity variations across the wafers between one and two orders of magnitude. Two major types of variations were identified. First is the U-shape distribution with low resistivity in the center and high in the periphery of the wafer. The second type had an inverted U-shape distribution. Secondary-ion-mass spectrometry measurements of the distribution of nitrogen concentration along the growth axis and across the wafers sliced from different locations of lightly nitrogen-doped 6H-SiC boules were conducted. The measured nitrogen concentration gradually decreased along the growth direction and from the center to the periphery of the wafers. This change gives rise to the U-like distribution of resistivity in wafers of undoped SI-SiC. The concentrations of deep electron traps exhibited similar dependence. Compensation of nitrogen donors by these traps can result in the inverted U-like distribution of resistivity. Possible reasons for the observed nonuniformities include formation of a (0001) facet in PVT growth coupled with orientation-dependent nitrogen incorporation, systematic changes of the gas phase composition, and increase of the deposition temperature during boule growth.

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Li Q, Polyakov AY, Skowronski M, Sanchez EK, Loboda MJ, Fanton MA et al. Nonuniformities of electrical resistivity in undoped 6H-SiC wafers. Journal of Applied Physics. 2005 Jul 1;97(11). 113705. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1921340