Ten orchard system treatments were evaluated: slender spindle training (SS) with rootstocks M.9, Mark and B.9 at 2460 trees/ha, vertical axis training (VA) with rootstocks P.l, M.26, 0.3, M.9 and Mark at 1502 trees/ha, and central leader training (CL) with rootstocks M.26 and Mark at 1111 trees/ha. 'Empire' was the scion at 8 sites (Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Ontario, Quebec, Virginia), 'Jonagold' at 5 sites (Illinois, Michigan, New York, Ontario, Quebec), 'Delicious' at 3 sites (Minnesota, North Carolina, Virginia) and 'Fuji' at 1 site (Washington). Ten-meter-long plots of each treatment were replicated four times in a RCB design at each site. At the end of year 5, trunk cross-sectional area (TCA, cm2), cumulative yield (kg per tree and tonne per ha) and cumulative yield efficiency (kg/cm2) were determined. With 'Empire1 and 'Jonagold', there were significant site, orchard system treatment, and site X treatment effects for each trait. With each cultivar and at most sites, VA/P. 1, VA/M.26 and CL/M.26 trees had the largest TCA. Treatments with the lowest tree density, CL/M.26 and CL/Mark, had the lowest cumulative production (t/ha) at almost all sites while treatments with the highest tree densities (SS) had the highest yield at most sites. Lowest yield efficiency (kg/cm2 ) occurred for treatments with P.l and M.26 rootstocks and the highest yield efficiency occurred with VA/M.9, VA/O.3 and VA/Mark with each cultivar and at most sites.