Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations

Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley, Malcolm K. Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1254 Scopus citations

Abstract

Building on recent studies, we attempt hemispheric temperature reconstructions with proxy data networks for the past millennium. We focus not just on the reconstructions, but the uncertainties therein, and important caveats. Though expanded uncertainties prevent decisive conclusions for the period prior to AD 1400, our results suggest that the latter 20th century is anomalous in the context of at least the past millennium. The 1990s was the warmest decade, and 1998 the warmest year, at moderately high levels of confidence. The 20th century warming counters a millennial-scale cooling trend which is consistent with long-term astronomical forcing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)759-762
Number of pages4
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Volume26
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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