Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originate not only from intracellular chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes, but also from the apoplastic space. ROS have both positive and negative roles in plant growth, development, and adaptation to environmental stresses. When the balance of ROS and antioxidants inclines to the former, oxidative stress is often observed and is a common response to abiotic stresses. A deficiency of the primary macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) modulates the ROS, the directions of which depend on plant species, genotypes, and stress duration and severity. However, a deficiency of the macronutrients leads to oxidative stress, which is assessed by markers, such as malondialdehyde, protein oxidation, and the ratio of reductant to oxidant. By alleviating oxidative stress, N, P, and K use efficiency might be improved and plant growth be promoted under the N, P, and K deficiency. This chapter discusses our basic understanding of N, P, and K deficiency, ROS, oxidative stress, and improvement of N, P, and K use efficiency in plants.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency|
|Subtitle of host publication||Molecular and Genomic Perspectives in Crop Plants|
|Number of pages||21|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2017|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)