NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

H. W. Kugel, M. G. Bell, J. P. Allain, R. E. Bell, S. Ding, S. P. Gerhardt, M. A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S. M. Kaye, B. P. Leblanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D. K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S. F. Paul, R. Raman, A. L. RoquemoreS. A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C. H. Skinner, V. A. Soukhanovskii, C. N. Taylor, J. R. Timberlake, W. R. Wampler, L. E. Zakharov, S. J. Zweben

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31 Scopus citations


NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S400-S404
JournalJournal of Nuclear Materials
Issue number1 SUPPL
StatePublished - Aug 1 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering


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