In order to understand the temperature fields, cooling rates and mixing in the weld pool, a comprehensive, three-dimensional heat transfer and fluid flow model is developed and tested by comparing model predictions with two sets of experimental data. The first set of data was taken from the literature. The experiments varied the separation distance between the heat sources for three arc current levels at a constant laser power. The second set of experiments analysed the effect of varying laser power for a constant heat source separation distance. The results demonstrate that the distance between the two heat sources significantly affects the cooling rates. The calculated results showed that the hybrid weld pool was very well mixed with strong convection currents resulting from the interaction between the electromagnetic and Marangoni forces. The calculated and experimental results showed that hybrid welding increases the weld pool width and gap bridgability when compared with laser welding. The weld pool depth in hybrid welding was affected mainly by the characteristics of the laser beam. Hybrid weld pool penetration depth is maximised at an optimal distance between the arc electrode and laser beam. The cooling rate increases significantly when the heat sources are separated beyond a critical distance. At close separation between arc and laser, calculations show that the arc radius must be decreased to achieve the observed weld depths.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics