Nutritional status in chronic spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Gary J. Farkas, Marika A. Pitot, Arthur Berg, David Gater

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Objectives: The objective was to investigate nutritional status in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), and compare macronutrient and micronutrient intake to the recommended values by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Setting: United States of America. Methods: A MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science search was performed, identifying 268 papers. All papers included were English-language papers examining adults with chronic SCI. A meta-analysis was performed to produce weighted averages and 95% confidence intervals (CI) when summary statistics were provided. Results: The systematic review included 15 articles, while the meta-analysis included 12. Resting metabolic rate (1492 kcal/day; CI: 1414–1569) fell below the able-bodied average, and total energy (1876 kcal/day; CI: 1694–2059) and fiber (17 g/day; CI: 14–20) intake were below USDA guidelines. Protein (319 kcal/day; CI: 294–345) and carbohydrate (969 kcal/day; CI: 851–1087) intake were above guidelines. Fat intake (663 kcal/day; CI: 590–736) was within USDA guidelines. Vitamins A, B5, B7, B9, D, E, potassium, and calcium were deficient, while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B12, C, K, sodium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc were in excess according to USDA guidelines. Vitamin B6, iron, and magnesium were within USDA guidelines. Conclusion: Findings indicate greater energy intake relative to energy needs in those with chronic SCI, and an imbalance in fiber intake and micronutrients compared to the USDA guidelines. Future research examining nutritional health status is needed in order to establish evidence-based, SCI-specific dietary guidelines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-17
Number of pages15
JournalSpinal Cord
Volume57
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

United States Department of Agriculture
Nutritional Status
Spinal Cord Injuries
Meta-Analysis
Confidence Intervals
Guidelines
Nutrition Policy
Micronutrients
Pantothenic Acid
Basal Metabolism
Vitamin B 6
Riboflavin
Thiamine
Energy Intake
Vitamin A
PubMed
MEDLINE
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Health Status

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Farkas, Gary J. ; Pitot, Marika A. ; Berg, Arthur ; Gater, David. / Nutritional status in chronic spinal cord injury : a systematic review and meta-analysis. In: Spinal Cord. 2019 ; Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 3-17.
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abstract = "Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Objectives: The objective was to investigate nutritional status in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), and compare macronutrient and micronutrient intake to the recommended values by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Setting: United States of America. Methods: A MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science search was performed, identifying 268 papers. All papers included were English-language papers examining adults with chronic SCI. A meta-analysis was performed to produce weighted averages and 95{\%} confidence intervals (CI) when summary statistics were provided. Results: The systematic review included 15 articles, while the meta-analysis included 12. Resting metabolic rate (1492 kcal/day; CI: 1414–1569) fell below the able-bodied average, and total energy (1876 kcal/day; CI: 1694–2059) and fiber (17 g/day; CI: 14–20) intake were below USDA guidelines. Protein (319 kcal/day; CI: 294–345) and carbohydrate (969 kcal/day; CI: 851–1087) intake were above guidelines. Fat intake (663 kcal/day; CI: 590–736) was within USDA guidelines. Vitamins A, B5, B7, B9, D, E, potassium, and calcium were deficient, while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B12, C, K, sodium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc were in excess according to USDA guidelines. Vitamin B6, iron, and magnesium were within USDA guidelines. Conclusion: Findings indicate greater energy intake relative to energy needs in those with chronic SCI, and an imbalance in fiber intake and micronutrients compared to the USDA guidelines. Future research examining nutritional health status is needed in order to establish evidence-based, SCI-specific dietary guidelines.",
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Nutritional status in chronic spinal cord injury : a systematic review and meta-analysis. / Farkas, Gary J.; Pitot, Marika A.; Berg, Arthur; Gater, David.

In: Spinal Cord, Vol. 57, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 3-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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N2 - Study design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Objectives: The objective was to investigate nutritional status in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), and compare macronutrient and micronutrient intake to the recommended values by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Setting: United States of America. Methods: A MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science search was performed, identifying 268 papers. All papers included were English-language papers examining adults with chronic SCI. A meta-analysis was performed to produce weighted averages and 95% confidence intervals (CI) when summary statistics were provided. Results: The systematic review included 15 articles, while the meta-analysis included 12. Resting metabolic rate (1492 kcal/day; CI: 1414–1569) fell below the able-bodied average, and total energy (1876 kcal/day; CI: 1694–2059) and fiber (17 g/day; CI: 14–20) intake were below USDA guidelines. Protein (319 kcal/day; CI: 294–345) and carbohydrate (969 kcal/day; CI: 851–1087) intake were above guidelines. Fat intake (663 kcal/day; CI: 590–736) was within USDA guidelines. Vitamins A, B5, B7, B9, D, E, potassium, and calcium were deficient, while vitamins B1, B2, B3, B12, C, K, sodium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc were in excess according to USDA guidelines. Vitamin B6, iron, and magnesium were within USDA guidelines. Conclusion: Findings indicate greater energy intake relative to energy needs in those with chronic SCI, and an imbalance in fiber intake and micronutrients compared to the USDA guidelines. Future research examining nutritional health status is needed in order to establish evidence-based, SCI-specific dietary guidelines.

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