Obesity, angiotensin-blocking drugs, and acute kidney injury in orthopedic surgery

Matthew T. Hennrikus, William P. Hennrikus, Erik Lehman, Eileen F. Hennrikus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Postoperative acute kidney injury occurs in 7% to 11% of orthopedic surgeries. The effect of preoperative angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on the development of postoperative acute kidney injury remains controversial. Adipose tissue has its own independently regulated angiotensin system. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of obesity and preoperative ACEIs and ARBs on postoperative acute kidney injury. Charts were reviewed of adult elective orthopedic surgery patients during a 2-year period when patients were instructed to take their ACEI or ARB on the morning of surgery. The patients were divided into an obese cohort (body mass index [BMI] =30 kg/m2) and a nonobese cohort (BMI <30 kg/m2). A multivariable model was created for the outcome of acute kidney injury, using obesity as a primary predictor and adjusting for demographics, medications, comorbidities, and intraoperative parameters in a logistic regression analysis. Obesity increased the likelihood of developing acute kidney injury after orthopedic surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% CI, 1.07-3.22; P=.028). For every 5-unit increase in BMI, the odds of acute kidney injury were 1.43 (95% CI, 1.26-1.62; P<.001). When receiving ACEIs or ARBs, only the nonobese patients had a statistically increased likelihood of postoperative acute kidney injury (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.12-9.70; P=.030). Obesity is an independent risk factor for postoperative acute kidney injury. Obesity appears to influence the effect that preoperative ACEIs and ARBs have on postoperative acute kidney injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E253-E258
JournalOrthopedics
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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