Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state

B. Abbott, R. Abbott, R. Adhikari, P. Ajith, B. Allen, G. Allen, R. Amin, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, M. A. Arain, M. Araya, H. Armandula, P. Armor, Y. Aso, S. Aston, P. Aufmuth, C. Aulbert, S. Babak, S. Ballmer, H. Bantilan & 424 others B. C. Barish, C. Barker, D. Barker, B. Barr, P. Barriga, M. A. Barton, M. Bastarrika, K. Bayer, J. Betzwieser, P. T. Beyersdorf, I. A. Bilenko, G. Billingsley, R. Biswas, E. Black, K. Blackburn, L. Blackburn, D. Blair, B. Bland, T. P. Bodiya, L. Bogue, R. Bork, V. Boschi, S. Bose, P. R. Brady, V. B. Braginsky, J. E. Brau, M. Brinkmann, A. Brooks, D. A. Brown, G. Brunet, A. Bullington, A. Buonanno, O. Burmeister, R. L. Byer, L. Cadonati, G. Cagnoli, J. B. Camp, J. Cannizzo, K. Cannon, J. Cao, L. Cardenas, T. Casebolt, G. Castaldi, C. Cepeda, E. Chalkley, P. Charlton, S. Chatterji, S. Chelkowski, Y. Chen, N. Christensen, D. Clark, J. Clark, T. Cokelaer, R. Conte, D. Cook, T. Corbitt, D. Coyne, J. D.E. Creighton, A. Cumming, L. Cunningham, R. M. Cutler, J. Dalrymple, S. Danilishin, K. Danzmann, G. Davies, D. DeBra, J. Degallaix, M. Degree, V. Dergachev, S. Desai, R. DeSalvo, S. Dhurandhar, M. Díaz, J. Dickson, A. Dietz, F. Donovan, K. L. Dooley, E. E. Doomes, R. W.P. Drever, I. Duke, J. C. Dumas, R. J. Dupuis, J. G. Dwyer, C. Echols, A. Effler, P. Ehrens, E. Espinoza, T. Etzel, T. Evans, S. Fairhurst, Y. Fan, D. Fazi, H. Fehrmann, M. M. Fejer, Lee S. Finn, K. Flasch, N. Fotopoulos, A. Freise, R. Frey, T. Fricke, P. Fritschel, V. V. Frolov, M. Fyffe, J. Garofoli, I. Gholami, J. A. Giaime, S. Giampanis, K. D. Giardina, K. Goda, E. Goetz, L. Goggin, G. González, S. Gossler, R. Gouaty, A. Grant, S. Gras, C. Gray, M. Gray, R. J.S. Greenhalgh, A. M. Gretarsson, F. Grimaldi, R. Grosso, H. Grote, S. Grunewald, M. Guenther, E. K. Gustafson, R. Gustafson, B. Hage, J. M. Hallam, D. Hammer, Chad Richard Hanna, J. Hanson, J. Harms, G. Harry, E. Harstad, K. Hayama, T. Hayler, J. Heefner, I. S. Heng, M. Hennessy, A. Heptonstall, M. Hewitson, S. Hild, E. Hirose, D. Hoak, D. Hosken, J. Hough, S. H. Huttner, D. Ingram, M. Ito, A. Ivanov, B. Johnson, W. W. Johnson, D. I. Jones, G. Jones, R. Jones, L. Ju, P. Kalmus, V. Kalogera, S. Kamat, J. Kanner, D. Kasprzyk, E. Katsavounidis, K. Kawabe, S. Kawamura, F. Kawazoe, W. Kells, D. G. Keppel, F. Ya Khalili, R. Khan, E. Khazanov, C. Kim, P. King, J. S. Kisse, S. Klimenko, K. Kokeyama, V. Kondrashov, R. K. Kopparapu, D. Kozak, I. Kozhevatov, B. Krishnan, P. Kwee, P. K. Lam, M. Landry, M. M. Lang, B. Lantz, A. Lazzarini, M. Lei, N. Leindecker, V. Leonhardt, I. Leonor, K. Libbrecht, H. Lin, P. Lindquist, N. A. Lockerbie, D. Lodhia, M. Lormand, P. Lu, M. Lubinski, A. Lucianetti, H. Lück, B. Machenschalk, M. MacInnis, M. Mageswaran, K. Mailand, V. Mandic, S. Márka, Z. Márka, A. Markosyan, J. Markowitz, E. Maros, I. Martin, R. M. Martin, J. N. Marx, K. Mason, F. Matichard, L. Matone, R. Matzner, N. Mavalvala, R. McCarthy, D. E. McClelland, S. C. McGuire, M. McHugh, G. McIntyre, G. McIvor, D. McKechan, K. McKenzie, T. Meier, A. Melissinos, G. Mendell, R. A. Mercer, S. Meshkov, C. J. Messenger, D. Meyers, H. Miao, J. Miller, J. Minelli, S. Mitra, V. P. Mitrofanov, G. Mitselmakher, R. Mittleman, O. Miyakawa, B. Moe, S. Mohanty, G. Moreno, K. Mossavi, C. Mow-Lowry, G. Mueller, S. Mukherjee, H. Mukhopadhyay, H. Müller-Ebhardt, J. Munch, P. Murray, E. Myers, J. Myers, T. Nash, J. Nelson, G. Newton, A. Nishizawa, K. Numata, J. O'Dell, G. Ogin, B. O'Reilly, R. O'Shaughnessy, D. J. Ottaway, R. S. Ottens, H. Overmier, B. J. Owen, Y. Pan, C. Pankow, M. A. Papa, V. Parameshwaraiah, P. Patel, M. Pedraza, S. Penn, A. Perreca, T. Petrie, I. M. Pinto, M. Pitkin, H. J. Pletsch, M. V. Plissi, F. Postiglione, M. Principe, R. Prix, V. Quetschke, F. Raab, D. S. Rabeling, H. Radkins, N. Rainer, M. Rakhmanov, M. Ramsunder, H. Rehbein, S. Reid, D. H. Reitze, R. Riesen, K. Riles, B. Rivera, N. A. Robertson, C. Robinson, E. L. Robinson, S. Roddy, A. Rodriguez, A. M. Rogan, J. Rollins, J. D. Romano, J. Romie, R. Route, S. Rowan, A. Rüdiger, L. Ruet, P. Russell, K. Ryan, S. Sakata, M. Samidi, L. Sancho De La Jordana, V. Sandberg, V. Sannibale, S. Saraf, P. Sarin, Bangalore S. Sathyaprakash, S. Sato, P. R. Saulson, R. Savage, P. Savov, S. W. Schediwy, R. Schilling, R. Schnabel, R. Schofield, B. F. Schutz, P. Schwinberg, S. M. Scott, A. C. Searle, B. Sears, F. Seifert, D. Sellers, A. S. Sengupta, P. Shawhan, D. H. Shoemaker, A. Sibley, X. Siemens, D. Sigg, S. Sinha, A. M. Sintes, B. J.J. Slagmolen, J. Slutsky, J. R. Smith, M. R. Smith, N. D. Smith, K. Somiya, B. Sorazu, L. C. Stein, A. Stochino, R. Stone, K. A. Strain, D. M. Strom, A. Stuver, T. Z. Summerscales, K. X. Sun, M. Sung, P. J. Sutton, H. Takahashi, D. B. Tanner, R. Taylor, R. Taylor, J. Thacker, K. A. Thorne, K. S. Thorne, A. Thüring, K. V. Tokmakov, C. Torres, C. Torrie, G. Traylor, M. Trias, W. Tyler, D. Ugolini, J. Ulmen, K. Urbanek, H. Vahlbruch, C. Van Den Broeck, M. Van Der Sluys, S. Vass, R. Vaulin, A. Vecchio, J. Veitch, P. Veitch, A. Villar, C. Vorvick, S. P. Vyatchanin, S. J. Waldman, L. Wallace, H. Ward, R. Ward, M. Weinert, A. Weinstein, R. Weiss, S. Wen, K. Wette, J. T. Whelan, S. E. Whitcomb, B. F. Whiting, C. Wilkinson, P. A. Willems, H. R. Williams, L. Williams, B. Willke, I. Wilmut, W. Winkler, C. C. Wipf, A. G. Wiseman, G. Woan, R. Wooley, J. Worden, W. Wu, I. Yakushin, H. Yamamoto, Z. Yan, S. Yoshida, M. Zanolin, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhao, N. Zotov, M. Zucker, J. Zweizig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

84 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We introduce a novel cooling technique capable of approaching the quantum ground state of a kilogram-scale system-an interferometric gravitational wave detector. The detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) operate within a factor of 10 of the standard quantum limit (SQL), providing a displacement sensitivity of 10-18 m in a 100 Hz band centered on 150 Hz. With a new feedback strategy, we dynamically shift the resonant frequency of a 2.7 kg pendulum mode to lie within this optimal band, where its effective temperature falls as low as 1.4μK, and its occupation number reaches about 200 quanta. This work shows how the exquisite sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves can be made available to probe the validity of quantum mechanics on an enormous mass scale.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number073032
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Volume11
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 16 2009

Fingerprint

gravitational waves
oscillators
LIGO (observatory)
ground state
sensitivity
detectors
pendulums
occupation
resonant frequencies
quantum mechanics
cooling
probes
shift
temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Abbott, B., Abbott, R., Adhikari, R., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., ... Zweizig, J. (2009). Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state. New Journal of Physics, 11, [073032]. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032
Abbott, B. ; Abbott, R. ; Adhikari, R. ; Ajith, P. ; Allen, B. ; Allen, G. ; Amin, R. ; Anderson, S. B. ; Anderson, W. G. ; Arain, M. A. ; Araya, M. ; Armandula, H. ; Armor, P. ; Aso, Y. ; Aston, S. ; Aufmuth, P. ; Aulbert, C. ; Babak, S. ; Ballmer, S. ; Bantilan, H. ; Barish, B. C. ; Barker, C. ; Barker, D. ; Barr, B. ; Barriga, P. ; Barton, M. A. ; Bastarrika, M. ; Bayer, K. ; Betzwieser, J. ; Beyersdorf, P. T. ; Bilenko, I. A. ; Billingsley, G. ; Biswas, R. ; Black, E. ; Blackburn, K. ; Blackburn, L. ; Blair, D. ; Bland, B. ; Bodiya, T. P. ; Bogue, L. ; Bork, R. ; Boschi, V. ; Bose, S. ; Brady, P. R. ; Braginsky, V. B. ; Brau, J. E. ; Brinkmann, M. ; Brooks, A. ; Brown, D. A. ; Brunet, G. ; Bullington, A. ; Buonanno, A. ; Burmeister, O. ; Byer, R. L. ; Cadonati, L. ; Cagnoli, G. ; Camp, J. B. ; Cannizzo, J. ; Cannon, K. ; Cao, J. ; Cardenas, L. ; Casebolt, T. ; Castaldi, G. ; Cepeda, C. ; Chalkley, E. ; Charlton, P. ; Chatterji, S. ; Chelkowski, S. ; Chen, Y. ; Christensen, N. ; Clark, D. ; Clark, J. ; Cokelaer, T. ; Conte, R. ; Cook, D. ; Corbitt, T. ; Coyne, D. ; Creighton, J. D.E. ; Cumming, A. ; Cunningham, L. ; Cutler, R. M. ; Dalrymple, J. ; Danilishin, S. ; Danzmann, K. ; Davies, G. ; DeBra, D. ; Degallaix, J. ; Degree, M. ; Dergachev, V. ; Desai, S. ; DeSalvo, R. ; Dhurandhar, S. ; Díaz, M. ; Dickson, J. ; Dietz, A. ; Donovan, F. ; Dooley, K. L. ; Doomes, E. E. ; Drever, R. W.P. ; Duke, I. ; Dumas, J. C. ; Dupuis, R. J. ; Dwyer, J. G. ; Echols, C. ; Effler, A. ; Ehrens, P. ; Espinoza, E. ; Etzel, T. ; Evans, T. ; Fairhurst, S. ; Fan, Y. ; Fazi, D. ; Fehrmann, H. ; Fejer, M. M. ; Finn, Lee S. ; Flasch, K. ; Fotopoulos, N. ; Freise, A. ; Frey, R. ; Fricke, T. ; Fritschel, P. ; Frolov, V. V. ; Fyffe, M. ; Garofoli, J. ; Gholami, I. ; Giaime, J. A. ; Giampanis, S. ; Giardina, K. D. ; Goda, K. ; Goetz, E. ; Goggin, L. ; González, G. ; Gossler, S. ; Gouaty, R. ; Grant, A. ; Gras, S. ; Gray, C. ; Gray, M. ; Greenhalgh, R. J.S. ; Gretarsson, A. M. ; Grimaldi, F. ; Grosso, R. ; Grote, H. ; Grunewald, S. ; Guenther, M. ; Gustafson, E. K. ; Gustafson, R. ; Hage, B. ; Hallam, J. M. ; Hammer, D. ; Hanna, Chad Richard ; Hanson, J. ; Harms, J. ; Harry, G. ; Harstad, E. ; Hayama, K. ; Hayler, T. ; Heefner, J. ; Heng, I. S. ; Hennessy, M. ; Heptonstall, A. ; Hewitson, M. ; Hild, S. ; Hirose, E. ; Hoak, D. ; Hosken, D. ; Hough, J. ; Huttner, S. H. ; Ingram, D. ; Ito, M. ; Ivanov, A. ; Johnson, B. ; Johnson, W. W. ; Jones, D. I. ; Jones, G. ; Jones, R. ; Ju, L. ; Kalmus, P. ; Kalogera, V. ; Kamat, S. ; Kanner, J. ; Kasprzyk, D. ; Katsavounidis, E. ; Kawabe, K. ; Kawamura, S. ; Kawazoe, F. ; Kells, W. ; Keppel, D. G. ; Khalili, F. Ya ; Khan, R. ; Khazanov, E. ; Kim, C. ; King, P. ; Kisse, J. S. ; Klimenko, S. ; Kokeyama, K. ; Kondrashov, V. ; Kopparapu, R. K. ; Kozak, D. ; Kozhevatov, I. ; Krishnan, B. ; Kwee, P. ; Lam, P. K. ; Landry, M. ; Lang, M. M. ; Lantz, B. ; Lazzarini, A. ; Lei, M. ; Leindecker, N. ; Leonhardt, V. ; Leonor, I. ; Libbrecht, K. ; Lin, H. ; Lindquist, P. ; Lockerbie, N. A. ; Lodhia, D. ; Lormand, M. ; Lu, P. ; Lubinski, M. ; Lucianetti, A. ; Lück, H. ; Machenschalk, B. ; MacInnis, M. ; Mageswaran, M. ; Mailand, K. ; Mandic, V. ; Márka, S. ; Márka, Z. ; Markosyan, A. ; Markowitz, J. ; Maros, E. ; Martin, I. ; Martin, R. M. ; Marx, J. N. ; Mason, K. ; Matichard, F. ; Matone, L. ; Matzner, R. ; Mavalvala, N. ; McCarthy, R. ; McClelland, D. E. ; McGuire, S. C. ; McHugh, M. ; McIntyre, G. ; McIvor, G. ; McKechan, D. ; McKenzie, K. ; Meier, T. ; Melissinos, A. ; Mendell, G. ; Mercer, R. A. ; Meshkov, S. ; Messenger, C. J. ; Meyers, D. ; Miao, H. ; Miller, J. ; Minelli, J. ; Mitra, S. ; Mitrofanov, V. P. ; Mitselmakher, G. ; Mittleman, R. ; Miyakawa, O. ; Moe, B. ; Mohanty, S. ; Moreno, G. ; Mossavi, K. ; Mow-Lowry, C. ; Mueller, G. ; Mukherjee, S. ; Mukhopadhyay, H. ; Müller-Ebhardt, H. ; Munch, J. ; Murray, P. ; Myers, E. ; Myers, J. ; Nash, T. ; Nelson, J. ; Newton, G. ; Nishizawa, A. ; Numata, K. ; O'Dell, J. ; Ogin, G. ; O'Reilly, B. ; O'Shaughnessy, R. ; Ottaway, D. J. ; Ottens, R. S. ; Overmier, H. ; Owen, B. J. ; Pan, Y. ; Pankow, C. ; Papa, M. A. ; Parameshwaraiah, V. ; Patel, P. ; Pedraza, M. ; Penn, S. ; Perreca, A. ; Petrie, T. ; Pinto, I. M. ; Pitkin, M. ; Pletsch, H. J. ; Plissi, M. V. ; Postiglione, F. ; Principe, M. ; Prix, R. ; Quetschke, V. ; Raab, F. ; Rabeling, D. S. ; Radkins, H. ; Rainer, N. ; Rakhmanov, M. ; Ramsunder, M. ; Rehbein, H. ; Reid, S. ; Reitze, D. H. ; Riesen, R. ; Riles, K. ; Rivera, B. ; Robertson, N. A. ; Robinson, C. ; Robinson, E. L. ; Roddy, S. ; Rodriguez, A. ; Rogan, A. M. ; Rollins, J. ; Romano, J. D. ; Romie, J. ; Route, R. ; Rowan, S. ; Rüdiger, A. ; Ruet, L. ; Russell, P. ; Ryan, K. ; Sakata, S. ; Samidi, M. ; De La Jordana, L. Sancho ; Sandberg, V. ; Sannibale, V. ; Saraf, S. ; Sarin, P. ; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore S. ; Sato, S. ; Saulson, P. R. ; Savage, R. ; Savov, P. ; Schediwy, S. W. ; Schilling, R. ; Schnabel, R. ; Schofield, R. ; Schutz, B. F. ; Schwinberg, P. ; Scott, S. M. ; Searle, A. C. ; Sears, B. ; Seifert, F. ; Sellers, D. ; Sengupta, A. S. ; Shawhan, P. ; Shoemaker, D. H. ; Sibley, A. ; Siemens, X. ; Sigg, D. ; Sinha, S. ; Sintes, A. M. ; Slagmolen, B. J.J. ; Slutsky, J. ; Smith, J. R. ; Smith, M. R. ; Smith, N. D. ; Somiya, K. ; Sorazu, B. ; Stein, L. C. ; Stochino, A. ; Stone, R. ; Strain, K. A. ; Strom, D. M. ; Stuver, A. ; Summerscales, T. Z. ; Sun, K. X. ; Sung, M. ; Sutton, P. J. ; Takahashi, H. ; Tanner, D. B. ; Taylor, R. ; Taylor, R. ; Thacker, J. ; Thorne, K. A. ; Thorne, K. S. ; Thüring, A. ; Tokmakov, K. V. ; Torres, C. ; Torrie, C. ; Traylor, G. ; Trias, M. ; Tyler, W. ; Ugolini, D. ; Ulmen, J. ; Urbanek, K. ; Vahlbruch, H. ; Van Den Broeck, C. ; Van Der Sluys, M. ; Vass, S. ; Vaulin, R. ; Vecchio, A. ; Veitch, J. ; Veitch, P. ; Villar, A. ; Vorvick, C. ; Vyatchanin, S. P. ; Waldman, S. J. ; Wallace, L. ; Ward, H. ; Ward, R. ; Weinert, M. ; Weinstein, A. ; Weiss, R. ; Wen, S. ; Wette, K. ; Whelan, J. T. ; Whitcomb, S. E. ; Whiting, B. F. ; Wilkinson, C. ; Willems, P. A. ; Williams, H. R. ; Williams, L. ; Willke, B. ; Wilmut, I. ; Winkler, W. ; Wipf, C. C. ; Wiseman, A. G. ; Woan, G. ; Wooley, R. ; Worden, J. ; Wu, W. ; Yakushin, I. ; Yamamoto, H. ; Yan, Z. ; Yoshida, S. ; Zanolin, M. ; Zhang, J. ; Zhang, L. ; Zhao, C. ; Zotov, N. ; Zucker, M. ; Zweizig, J. / Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state. In: New Journal of Physics. 2009 ; Vol. 11.
@article{230c189e1a634b40999fb4168b2422e7,
title = "Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state",
abstract = "We introduce a novel cooling technique capable of approaching the quantum ground state of a kilogram-scale system-an interferometric gravitational wave detector. The detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) operate within a factor of 10 of the standard quantum limit (SQL), providing a displacement sensitivity of 10-18 m in a 100 Hz band centered on 150 Hz. With a new feedback strategy, we dynamically shift the resonant frequency of a 2.7 kg pendulum mode to lie within this optimal band, where its effective temperature falls as low as 1.4μK, and its occupation number reaches about 200 quanta. This work shows how the exquisite sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves can be made available to probe the validity of quantum mechanics on an enormous mass scale.",
author = "B. Abbott and R. Abbott and R. Adhikari and P. Ajith and B. Allen and G. Allen and R. Amin and Anderson, {S. B.} and Anderson, {W. G.} and Arain, {M. A.} and M. Araya and H. Armandula and P. Armor and Y. Aso and S. Aston and P. Aufmuth and C. Aulbert and S. Babak and S. Ballmer and H. Bantilan and Barish, {B. C.} and C. Barker and D. Barker and B. Barr and P. Barriga and Barton, {M. A.} and M. Bastarrika and K. Bayer and J. Betzwieser and Beyersdorf, {P. T.} and Bilenko, {I. A.} and G. Billingsley and R. Biswas and E. Black and K. Blackburn and L. Blackburn and D. Blair and B. Bland and Bodiya, {T. P.} and L. Bogue and R. Bork and V. Boschi and S. Bose and Brady, {P. R.} and Braginsky, {V. B.} and Brau, {J. E.} and M. Brinkmann and A. Brooks and Brown, {D. A.} and G. Brunet and A. Bullington and A. Buonanno and O. Burmeister and Byer, {R. L.} and L. Cadonati and G. Cagnoli and Camp, {J. B.} and J. Cannizzo and K. Cannon and J. Cao and L. Cardenas and T. Casebolt and G. Castaldi and C. Cepeda and E. Chalkley and P. Charlton and S. Chatterji and S. Chelkowski and Y. Chen and N. Christensen and D. Clark and J. Clark and T. Cokelaer and R. Conte and D. Cook and T. Corbitt and D. Coyne and Creighton, {J. D.E.} and A. Cumming and L. Cunningham and Cutler, {R. M.} and J. Dalrymple and S. Danilishin and K. Danzmann and G. Davies and D. DeBra and J. Degallaix and M. Degree and V. Dergachev and S. Desai and R. DeSalvo and S. Dhurandhar and M. D{\'i}az and J. Dickson and A. Dietz and F. Donovan and Dooley, {K. L.} and Doomes, {E. E.} and Drever, {R. W.P.} and I. Duke and Dumas, {J. C.} and Dupuis, {R. J.} and Dwyer, {J. G.} and C. Echols and A. Effler and P. Ehrens and E. Espinoza and T. Etzel and T. Evans and S. Fairhurst and Y. Fan and D. Fazi and H. Fehrmann and Fejer, {M. M.} and Finn, {Lee S.} and K. Flasch and N. Fotopoulos and A. Freise and R. Frey and T. Fricke and P. Fritschel and Frolov, {V. V.} and M. Fyffe and J. Garofoli and I. Gholami and Giaime, {J. A.} and S. Giampanis and Giardina, {K. D.} and K. Goda and E. Goetz and L. Goggin and G. Gonz{\'a}lez and S. Gossler and R. Gouaty and A. Grant and S. Gras and C. Gray and M. Gray and Greenhalgh, {R. J.S.} and Gretarsson, {A. M.} and F. Grimaldi and R. Grosso and H. Grote and S. Grunewald and M. Guenther and Gustafson, {E. K.} and R. Gustafson and B. Hage and Hallam, {J. M.} and D. Hammer and Hanna, {Chad Richard} and J. Hanson and J. Harms and G. Harry and E. Harstad and K. Hayama and T. Hayler and J. Heefner and Heng, {I. S.} and M. Hennessy and A. Heptonstall and M. Hewitson and S. Hild and E. Hirose and D. Hoak and D. Hosken and J. Hough and Huttner, {S. H.} and D. Ingram and M. Ito and A. Ivanov and B. Johnson and Johnson, {W. W.} and Jones, {D. I.} and G. Jones and R. Jones and L. Ju and P. Kalmus and V. Kalogera and S. Kamat and J. Kanner and D. Kasprzyk and E. Katsavounidis and K. Kawabe and S. Kawamura and F. Kawazoe and W. Kells and Keppel, {D. G.} and Khalili, {F. Ya} and R. Khan and E. Khazanov and C. Kim and P. King and Kisse, {J. S.} and S. Klimenko and K. Kokeyama and V. Kondrashov and Kopparapu, {R. K.} and D. Kozak and I. Kozhevatov and B. Krishnan and P. Kwee and Lam, {P. K.} and M. Landry and Lang, {M. M.} and B. Lantz and A. Lazzarini and M. Lei and N. Leindecker and V. Leonhardt and I. Leonor and K. Libbrecht and H. Lin and P. Lindquist and Lockerbie, {N. A.} and D. Lodhia and M. Lormand and P. Lu and M. Lubinski and A. Lucianetti and H. L{\"u}ck and B. Machenschalk and M. MacInnis and M. Mageswaran and K. Mailand and V. Mandic and S. M{\'a}rka and Z. M{\'a}rka and A. Markosyan and J. Markowitz and E. Maros and I. Martin and Martin, {R. M.} and Marx, {J. N.} and K. Mason and F. Matichard and L. Matone and R. Matzner and N. Mavalvala and R. McCarthy and McClelland, {D. E.} and McGuire, {S. C.} and M. McHugh and G. McIntyre and G. McIvor and D. McKechan and K. McKenzie and T. Meier and A. Melissinos and G. Mendell and Mercer, {R. A.} and S. Meshkov and Messenger, {C. J.} and D. Meyers and H. Miao and J. Miller and J. Minelli and S. Mitra and Mitrofanov, {V. P.} and G. Mitselmakher and R. Mittleman and O. Miyakawa and B. Moe and S. Mohanty and G. Moreno and K. Mossavi and C. Mow-Lowry and G. Mueller and S. Mukherjee and H. Mukhopadhyay and H. M{\"u}ller-Ebhardt and J. Munch and P. Murray and E. Myers and J. Myers and T. Nash and J. Nelson and G. Newton and A. Nishizawa and K. Numata and J. O'Dell and G. Ogin and B. O'Reilly and R. O'Shaughnessy and Ottaway, {D. J.} and Ottens, {R. S.} and H. Overmier and Owen, {B. J.} and Y. Pan and C. Pankow and Papa, {M. A.} and V. Parameshwaraiah and P. Patel and M. Pedraza and S. Penn and A. Perreca and T. Petrie and Pinto, {I. M.} and M. Pitkin and Pletsch, {H. J.} and Plissi, {M. V.} and F. Postiglione and M. Principe and R. Prix and V. Quetschke and F. Raab and Rabeling, {D. S.} and H. Radkins and N. Rainer and M. Rakhmanov and M. Ramsunder and H. Rehbein and S. Reid and Reitze, {D. H.} and R. Riesen and K. Riles and B. Rivera and Robertson, {N. A.} and C. Robinson and Robinson, {E. L.} and S. Roddy and A. Rodriguez and Rogan, {A. M.} and J. Rollins and Romano, {J. D.} and J. Romie and R. Route and S. Rowan and A. R{\"u}diger and L. Ruet and P. Russell and K. Ryan and S. Sakata and M. Samidi and {De La Jordana}, {L. Sancho} and V. Sandberg and V. Sannibale and S. Saraf and P. Sarin and Sathyaprakash, {Bangalore S.} and S. Sato and Saulson, {P. R.} and R. Savage and P. Savov and Schediwy, {S. W.} and R. Schilling and R. Schnabel and R. Schofield and Schutz, {B. F.} and P. Schwinberg and Scott, {S. M.} and Searle, {A. C.} and B. Sears and F. Seifert and D. Sellers and Sengupta, {A. S.} and P. Shawhan and Shoemaker, {D. H.} and A. Sibley and X. Siemens and D. Sigg and S. Sinha and Sintes, {A. M.} and Slagmolen, {B. J.J.} and J. Slutsky and Smith, {J. R.} and Smith, {M. R.} and Smith, {N. D.} and K. Somiya and B. Sorazu and Stein, {L. C.} and A. Stochino and R. Stone and Strain, {K. A.} and Strom, {D. M.} and A. Stuver and Summerscales, {T. Z.} and Sun, {K. X.} and M. Sung and Sutton, {P. J.} and H. Takahashi and Tanner, {D. B.} and R. Taylor and R. Taylor and J. Thacker and Thorne, {K. A.} and Thorne, {K. S.} and A. Th{\"u}ring and Tokmakov, {K. V.} and C. Torres and C. Torrie and G. Traylor and M. Trias and W. Tyler and D. Ugolini and J. Ulmen and K. Urbanek and H. Vahlbruch and {Van Den Broeck}, C. and {Van Der Sluys}, M. and S. Vass and R. Vaulin and A. Vecchio and J. Veitch and P. Veitch and A. Villar and C. Vorvick and Vyatchanin, {S. P.} and Waldman, {S. J.} and L. Wallace and H. Ward and R. Ward and M. Weinert and A. Weinstein and R. Weiss and S. Wen and K. Wette and Whelan, {J. T.} and Whitcomb, {S. E.} and Whiting, {B. F.} and C. Wilkinson and Willems, {P. A.} and Williams, {H. R.} and L. Williams and B. Willke and I. Wilmut and W. Winkler and Wipf, {C. C.} and Wiseman, {A. G.} and G. Woan and R. Wooley and J. Worden and W. Wu and I. Yakushin and H. Yamamoto and Z. Yan and S. Yoshida and M. Zanolin and J. Zhang and L. Zhang and C. Zhao and N. Zotov and M. Zucker and J. Zweizig",
year = "2009",
month = "7",
day = "16",
doi = "10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "11",
journal = "New Journal of Physics",
issn = "1367-2630",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",

}

Abbott, B, Abbott, R, Adhikari, R, Ajith, P, Allen, B, Allen, G, Amin, R, Anderson, SB, Anderson, WG, Arain, MA, Araya, M, Armandula, H, Armor, P, Aso, Y, Aston, S, Aufmuth, P, Aulbert, C, Babak, S, Ballmer, S, Bantilan, H, Barish, BC, Barker, C, Barker, D, Barr, B, Barriga, P, Barton, MA, Bastarrika, M, Bayer, K, Betzwieser, J, Beyersdorf, PT, Bilenko, IA, Billingsley, G, Biswas, R, Black, E, Blackburn, K, Blackburn, L, Blair, D, Bland, B, Bodiya, TP, Bogue, L, Bork, R, Boschi, V, Bose, S, Brady, PR, Braginsky, VB, Brau, JE, Brinkmann, M, Brooks, A, Brown, DA, Brunet, G, Bullington, A, Buonanno, A, Burmeister, O, Byer, RL, Cadonati, L, Cagnoli, G, Camp, JB, Cannizzo, J, Cannon, K, Cao, J, Cardenas, L, Casebolt, T, Castaldi, G, Cepeda, C, Chalkley, E, Charlton, P, Chatterji, S, Chelkowski, S, Chen, Y, Christensen, N, Clark, D, Clark, J, Cokelaer, T, Conte, R, Cook, D, Corbitt, T, Coyne, D, Creighton, JDE, Cumming, A, Cunningham, L, Cutler, RM, Dalrymple, J, Danilishin, S, Danzmann, K, Davies, G, DeBra, D, Degallaix, J, Degree, M, Dergachev, V, Desai, S, DeSalvo, R, Dhurandhar, S, Díaz, M, Dickson, J, Dietz, A, Donovan, F, Dooley, KL, Doomes, EE, Drever, RWP, Duke, I, Dumas, JC, Dupuis, RJ, Dwyer, JG, Echols, C, Effler, A, Ehrens, P, Espinoza, E, Etzel, T, Evans, T, Fairhurst, S, Fan, Y, Fazi, D, Fehrmann, H, Fejer, MM, Finn, LS, Flasch, K, Fotopoulos, N, Freise, A, Frey, R, Fricke, T, Fritschel, P, Frolov, VV, Fyffe, M, Garofoli, J, Gholami, I, Giaime, JA, Giampanis, S, Giardina, KD, Goda, K, Goetz, E, Goggin, L, González, G, Gossler, S, Gouaty, R, Grant, A, Gras, S, Gray, C, Gray, M, Greenhalgh, RJS, Gretarsson, AM, Grimaldi, F, Grosso, R, Grote, H, Grunewald, S, Guenther, M, Gustafson, EK, Gustafson, R, Hage, B, Hallam, JM, Hammer, D, Hanna, CR, Hanson, J, Harms, J, Harry, G, Harstad, E, Hayama, K, Hayler, T, Heefner, J, Heng, IS, Hennessy, M, Heptonstall, A, Hewitson, M, Hild, S, Hirose, E, Hoak, D, Hosken, D, Hough, J, Huttner, SH, Ingram, D, Ito, M, Ivanov, A, Johnson, B, Johnson, WW, Jones, DI, Jones, G, Jones, R, Ju, L, Kalmus, P, Kalogera, V, Kamat, S, Kanner, J, Kasprzyk, D, Katsavounidis, E, Kawabe, K, Kawamura, S, Kawazoe, F, Kells, W, Keppel, DG, Khalili, FY, Khan, R, Khazanov, E, Kim, C, King, P, Kisse, JS, Klimenko, S, Kokeyama, K, Kondrashov, V, Kopparapu, RK, Kozak, D, Kozhevatov, I, Krishnan, B, Kwee, P, Lam, PK, Landry, M, Lang, MM, Lantz, B, Lazzarini, A, Lei, M, Leindecker, N, Leonhardt, V, Leonor, I, Libbrecht, K, Lin, H, Lindquist, P, Lockerbie, NA, Lodhia, D, Lormand, M, Lu, P, Lubinski, M, Lucianetti, A, Lück, H, Machenschalk, B, MacInnis, M, Mageswaran, M, Mailand, K, Mandic, V, Márka, S, Márka, Z, Markosyan, A, Markowitz, J, Maros, E, Martin, I, Martin, RM, Marx, JN, Mason, K, Matichard, F, Matone, L, Matzner, R, Mavalvala, N, McCarthy, R, McClelland, DE, McGuire, SC, McHugh, M, McIntyre, G, McIvor, G, McKechan, D, McKenzie, K, Meier, T, Melissinos, A, Mendell, G, Mercer, RA, Meshkov, S, Messenger, CJ, Meyers, D, Miao, H, Miller, J, Minelli, J, Mitra, S, Mitrofanov, VP, Mitselmakher, G, Mittleman, R, Miyakawa, O, Moe, B, Mohanty, S, Moreno, G, Mossavi, K, Mow-Lowry, C, Mueller, G, Mukherjee, S, Mukhopadhyay, H, Müller-Ebhardt, H, Munch, J, Murray, P, Myers, E, Myers, J, Nash, T, Nelson, J, Newton, G, Nishizawa, A, Numata, K, O'Dell, J, Ogin, G, O'Reilly, B, O'Shaughnessy, R, Ottaway, DJ, Ottens, RS, Overmier, H, Owen, BJ, Pan, Y, Pankow, C, Papa, MA, Parameshwaraiah, V, Patel, P, Pedraza, M, Penn, S, Perreca, A, Petrie, T, Pinto, IM, Pitkin, M, Pletsch, HJ, Plissi, MV, Postiglione, F, Principe, M, Prix, R, Quetschke, V, Raab, F, Rabeling, DS, Radkins, H, Rainer, N, Rakhmanov, M, Ramsunder, M, Rehbein, H, Reid, S, Reitze, DH, Riesen, R, Riles, K, Rivera, B, Robertson, NA, Robinson, C, Robinson, EL, Roddy, S, Rodriguez, A, Rogan, AM, Rollins, J, Romano, JD, Romie, J, Route, R, Rowan, S, Rüdiger, A, Ruet, L, Russell, P, Ryan, K, Sakata, S, Samidi, M, De La Jordana, LS, Sandberg, V, Sannibale, V, Saraf, S, Sarin, P, Sathyaprakash, BS, Sato, S, Saulson, PR, Savage, R, Savov, P, Schediwy, SW, Schilling, R, Schnabel, R, Schofield, R, Schutz, BF, Schwinberg, P, Scott, SM, Searle, AC, Sears, B, Seifert, F, Sellers, D, Sengupta, AS, Shawhan, P, Shoemaker, DH, Sibley, A, Siemens, X, Sigg, D, Sinha, S, Sintes, AM, Slagmolen, BJJ, Slutsky, J, Smith, JR, Smith, MR, Smith, ND, Somiya, K, Sorazu, B, Stein, LC, Stochino, A, Stone, R, Strain, KA, Strom, DM, Stuver, A, Summerscales, TZ, Sun, KX, Sung, M, Sutton, PJ, Takahashi, H, Tanner, DB, Taylor, R, Taylor, R, Thacker, J, Thorne, KA, Thorne, KS, Thüring, A, Tokmakov, KV, Torres, C, Torrie, C, Traylor, G, Trias, M, Tyler, W, Ugolini, D, Ulmen, J, Urbanek, K, Vahlbruch, H, Van Den Broeck, C, Van Der Sluys, M, Vass, S, Vaulin, R, Vecchio, A, Veitch, J, Veitch, P, Villar, A, Vorvick, C, Vyatchanin, SP, Waldman, SJ, Wallace, L, Ward, H, Ward, R, Weinert, M, Weinstein, A, Weiss, R, Wen, S, Wette, K, Whelan, JT, Whitcomb, SE, Whiting, BF, Wilkinson, C, Willems, PA, Williams, HR, Williams, L, Willke, B, Wilmut, I, Winkler, W, Wipf, CC, Wiseman, AG, Woan, G, Wooley, R, Worden, J, Wu, W, Yakushin, I, Yamamoto, H, Yan, Z, Yoshida, S, Zanolin, M, Zhang, J, Zhang, L, Zhao, C, Zotov, N, Zucker, M & Zweizig, J 2009, 'Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state', New Journal of Physics, vol. 11, 073032. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032

Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state. / Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bastarrika, M.; Bayer, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casebolt, T.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Cokelaer, T.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D.E.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, R. M.; Dalrymple, J.; Danilishin, S.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W.P.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J. C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, Lee S.; Flasch, K.; Fotopoulos, N.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J.S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, Chad Richard; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayama, K.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kamat, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kisse, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Kozhevatov, I.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lang, M. M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Lubinski, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D.; McKenzie, K.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Miao, H.; Miller, J.; Minelli, J.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mow-Lowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, H.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Petrie, T.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; De La Jordana, L. Sancho; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S. W.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J.J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Stein, L. C.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K. X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ulmen, J.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Van Der Sluys, M.; Vass, S.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, H. R.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zweizig, J.

In: New Journal of Physics, Vol. 11, 073032, 16.07.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state

AU - Abbott, B.

AU - Abbott, R.

AU - Adhikari, R.

AU - Ajith, P.

AU - Allen, B.

AU - Allen, G.

AU - Amin, R.

AU - Anderson, S. B.

AU - Anderson, W. G.

AU - Arain, M. A.

AU - Araya, M.

AU - Armandula, H.

AU - Armor, P.

AU - Aso, Y.

AU - Aston, S.

AU - Aufmuth, P.

AU - Aulbert, C.

AU - Babak, S.

AU - Ballmer, S.

AU - Bantilan, H.

AU - Barish, B. C.

AU - Barker, C.

AU - Barker, D.

AU - Barr, B.

AU - Barriga, P.

AU - Barton, M. A.

AU - Bastarrika, M.

AU - Bayer, K.

AU - Betzwieser, J.

AU - Beyersdorf, P. T.

AU - Bilenko, I. A.

AU - Billingsley, G.

AU - Biswas, R.

AU - Black, E.

AU - Blackburn, K.

AU - Blackburn, L.

AU - Blair, D.

AU - Bland, B.

AU - Bodiya, T. P.

AU - Bogue, L.

AU - Bork, R.

AU - Boschi, V.

AU - Bose, S.

AU - Brady, P. R.

AU - Braginsky, V. B.

AU - Brau, J. E.

AU - Brinkmann, M.

AU - Brooks, A.

AU - Brown, D. A.

AU - Brunet, G.

AU - Bullington, A.

AU - Buonanno, A.

AU - Burmeister, O.

AU - Byer, R. L.

AU - Cadonati, L.

AU - Cagnoli, G.

AU - Camp, J. B.

AU - Cannizzo, J.

AU - Cannon, K.

AU - Cao, J.

AU - Cardenas, L.

AU - Casebolt, T.

AU - Castaldi, G.

AU - Cepeda, C.

AU - Chalkley, E.

AU - Charlton, P.

AU - Chatterji, S.

AU - Chelkowski, S.

AU - Chen, Y.

AU - Christensen, N.

AU - Clark, D.

AU - Clark, J.

AU - Cokelaer, T.

AU - Conte, R.

AU - Cook, D.

AU - Corbitt, T.

AU - Coyne, D.

AU - Creighton, J. D.E.

AU - Cumming, A.

AU - Cunningham, L.

AU - Cutler, R. M.

AU - Dalrymple, J.

AU - Danilishin, S.

AU - Danzmann, K.

AU - Davies, G.

AU - DeBra, D.

AU - Degallaix, J.

AU - Degree, M.

AU - Dergachev, V.

AU - Desai, S.

AU - DeSalvo, R.

AU - Dhurandhar, S.

AU - Díaz, M.

AU - Dickson, J.

AU - Dietz, A.

AU - Donovan, F.

AU - Dooley, K. L.

AU - Doomes, E. E.

AU - Drever, R. W.P.

AU - Duke, I.

AU - Dumas, J. C.

AU - Dupuis, R. J.

AU - Dwyer, J. G.

AU - Echols, C.

AU - Effler, A.

AU - Ehrens, P.

AU - Espinoza, E.

AU - Etzel, T.

AU - Evans, T.

AU - Fairhurst, S.

AU - Fan, Y.

AU - Fazi, D.

AU - Fehrmann, H.

AU - Fejer, M. M.

AU - Finn, Lee S.

AU - Flasch, K.

AU - Fotopoulos, N.

AU - Freise, A.

AU - Frey, R.

AU - Fricke, T.

AU - Fritschel, P.

AU - Frolov, V. V.

AU - Fyffe, M.

AU - Garofoli, J.

AU - Gholami, I.

AU - Giaime, J. A.

AU - Giampanis, S.

AU - Giardina, K. D.

AU - Goda, K.

AU - Goetz, E.

AU - Goggin, L.

AU - González, G.

AU - Gossler, S.

AU - Gouaty, R.

AU - Grant, A.

AU - Gras, S.

AU - Gray, C.

AU - Gray, M.

AU - Greenhalgh, R. J.S.

AU - Gretarsson, A. M.

AU - Grimaldi, F.

AU - Grosso, R.

AU - Grote, H.

AU - Grunewald, S.

AU - Guenther, M.

AU - Gustafson, E. K.

AU - Gustafson, R.

AU - Hage, B.

AU - Hallam, J. M.

AU - Hammer, D.

AU - Hanna, Chad Richard

AU - Hanson, J.

AU - Harms, J.

AU - Harry, G.

AU - Harstad, E.

AU - Hayama, K.

AU - Hayler, T.

AU - Heefner, J.

AU - Heng, I. S.

AU - Hennessy, M.

AU - Heptonstall, A.

AU - Hewitson, M.

AU - Hild, S.

AU - Hirose, E.

AU - Hoak, D.

AU - Hosken, D.

AU - Hough, J.

AU - Huttner, S. H.

AU - Ingram, D.

AU - Ito, M.

AU - Ivanov, A.

AU - Johnson, B.

AU - Johnson, W. W.

AU - Jones, D. I.

AU - Jones, G.

AU - Jones, R.

AU - Ju, L.

AU - Kalmus, P.

AU - Kalogera, V.

AU - Kamat, S.

AU - Kanner, J.

AU - Kasprzyk, D.

AU - Katsavounidis, E.

AU - Kawabe, K.

AU - Kawamura, S.

AU - Kawazoe, F.

AU - Kells, W.

AU - Keppel, D. G.

AU - Khalili, F. Ya

AU - Khan, R.

AU - Khazanov, E.

AU - Kim, C.

AU - King, P.

AU - Kisse, J. S.

AU - Klimenko, S.

AU - Kokeyama, K.

AU - Kondrashov, V.

AU - Kopparapu, R. K.

AU - Kozak, D.

AU - Kozhevatov, I.

AU - Krishnan, B.

AU - Kwee, P.

AU - Lam, P. K.

AU - Landry, M.

AU - Lang, M. M.

AU - Lantz, B.

AU - Lazzarini, A.

AU - Lei, M.

AU - Leindecker, N.

AU - Leonhardt, V.

AU - Leonor, I.

AU - Libbrecht, K.

AU - Lin, H.

AU - Lindquist, P.

AU - Lockerbie, N. A.

AU - Lodhia, D.

AU - Lormand, M.

AU - Lu, P.

AU - Lubinski, M.

AU - Lucianetti, A.

AU - Lück, H.

AU - Machenschalk, B.

AU - MacInnis, M.

AU - Mageswaran, M.

AU - Mailand, K.

AU - Mandic, V.

AU - Márka, S.

AU - Márka, Z.

AU - Markosyan, A.

AU - Markowitz, J.

AU - Maros, E.

AU - Martin, I.

AU - Martin, R. M.

AU - Marx, J. N.

AU - Mason, K.

AU - Matichard, F.

AU - Matone, L.

AU - Matzner, R.

AU - Mavalvala, N.

AU - McCarthy, R.

AU - McClelland, D. E.

AU - McGuire, S. C.

AU - McHugh, M.

AU - McIntyre, G.

AU - McIvor, G.

AU - McKechan, D.

AU - McKenzie, K.

AU - Meier, T.

AU - Melissinos, A.

AU - Mendell, G.

AU - Mercer, R. A.

AU - Meshkov, S.

AU - Messenger, C. J.

AU - Meyers, D.

AU - Miao, H.

AU - Miller, J.

AU - Minelli, J.

AU - Mitra, S.

AU - Mitrofanov, V. P.

AU - Mitselmakher, G.

AU - Mittleman, R.

AU - Miyakawa, O.

AU - Moe, B.

AU - Mohanty, S.

AU - Moreno, G.

AU - Mossavi, K.

AU - Mow-Lowry, C.

AU - Mueller, G.

AU - Mukherjee, S.

AU - Mukhopadhyay, H.

AU - Müller-Ebhardt, H.

AU - Munch, J.

AU - Murray, P.

AU - Myers, E.

AU - Myers, J.

AU - Nash, T.

AU - Nelson, J.

AU - Newton, G.

AU - Nishizawa, A.

AU - Numata, K.

AU - O'Dell, J.

AU - Ogin, G.

AU - O'Reilly, B.

AU - O'Shaughnessy, R.

AU - Ottaway, D. J.

AU - Ottens, R. S.

AU - Overmier, H.

AU - Owen, B. J.

AU - Pan, Y.

AU - Pankow, C.

AU - Papa, M. A.

AU - Parameshwaraiah, V.

AU - Patel, P.

AU - Pedraza, M.

AU - Penn, S.

AU - Perreca, A.

AU - Petrie, T.

AU - Pinto, I. M.

AU - Pitkin, M.

AU - Pletsch, H. J.

AU - Plissi, M. V.

AU - Postiglione, F.

AU - Principe, M.

AU - Prix, R.

AU - Quetschke, V.

AU - Raab, F.

AU - Rabeling, D. S.

AU - Radkins, H.

AU - Rainer, N.

AU - Rakhmanov, M.

AU - Ramsunder, M.

AU - Rehbein, H.

AU - Reid, S.

AU - Reitze, D. H.

AU - Riesen, R.

AU - Riles, K.

AU - Rivera, B.

AU - Robertson, N. A.

AU - Robinson, C.

AU - Robinson, E. L.

AU - Roddy, S.

AU - Rodriguez, A.

AU - Rogan, A. M.

AU - Rollins, J.

AU - Romano, J. D.

AU - Romie, J.

AU - Route, R.

AU - Rowan, S.

AU - Rüdiger, A.

AU - Ruet, L.

AU - Russell, P.

AU - Ryan, K.

AU - Sakata, S.

AU - Samidi, M.

AU - De La Jordana, L. Sancho

AU - Sandberg, V.

AU - Sannibale, V.

AU - Saraf, S.

AU - Sarin, P.

AU - Sathyaprakash, Bangalore S.

AU - Sato, S.

AU - Saulson, P. R.

AU - Savage, R.

AU - Savov, P.

AU - Schediwy, S. W.

AU - Schilling, R.

AU - Schnabel, R.

AU - Schofield, R.

AU - Schutz, B. F.

AU - Schwinberg, P.

AU - Scott, S. M.

AU - Searle, A. C.

AU - Sears, B.

AU - Seifert, F.

AU - Sellers, D.

AU - Sengupta, A. S.

AU - Shawhan, P.

AU - Shoemaker, D. H.

AU - Sibley, A.

AU - Siemens, X.

AU - Sigg, D.

AU - Sinha, S.

AU - Sintes, A. M.

AU - Slagmolen, B. J.J.

AU - Slutsky, J.

AU - Smith, J. R.

AU - Smith, M. R.

AU - Smith, N. D.

AU - Somiya, K.

AU - Sorazu, B.

AU - Stein, L. C.

AU - Stochino, A.

AU - Stone, R.

AU - Strain, K. A.

AU - Strom, D. M.

AU - Stuver, A.

AU - Summerscales, T. Z.

AU - Sun, K. X.

AU - Sung, M.

AU - Sutton, P. J.

AU - Takahashi, H.

AU - Tanner, D. B.

AU - Taylor, R.

AU - Taylor, R.

AU - Thacker, J.

AU - Thorne, K. A.

AU - Thorne, K. S.

AU - Thüring, A.

AU - Tokmakov, K. V.

AU - Torres, C.

AU - Torrie, C.

AU - Traylor, G.

AU - Trias, M.

AU - Tyler, W.

AU - Ugolini, D.

AU - Ulmen, J.

AU - Urbanek, K.

AU - Vahlbruch, H.

AU - Van Den Broeck, C.

AU - Van Der Sluys, M.

AU - Vass, S.

AU - Vaulin, R.

AU - Vecchio, A.

AU - Veitch, J.

AU - Veitch, P.

AU - Villar, A.

AU - Vorvick, C.

AU - Vyatchanin, S. P.

AU - Waldman, S. J.

AU - Wallace, L.

AU - Ward, H.

AU - Ward, R.

AU - Weinert, M.

AU - Weinstein, A.

AU - Weiss, R.

AU - Wen, S.

AU - Wette, K.

AU - Whelan, J. T.

AU - Whitcomb, S. E.

AU - Whiting, B. F.

AU - Wilkinson, C.

AU - Willems, P. A.

AU - Williams, H. R.

AU - Williams, L.

AU - Willke, B.

AU - Wilmut, I.

AU - Winkler, W.

AU - Wipf, C. C.

AU - Wiseman, A. G.

AU - Woan, G.

AU - Wooley, R.

AU - Worden, J.

AU - Wu, W.

AU - Yakushin, I.

AU - Yamamoto, H.

AU - Yan, Z.

AU - Yoshida, S.

AU - Zanolin, M.

AU - Zhang, J.

AU - Zhang, L.

AU - Zhao, C.

AU - Zotov, N.

AU - Zucker, M.

AU - Zweizig, J.

PY - 2009/7/16

Y1 - 2009/7/16

N2 - We introduce a novel cooling technique capable of approaching the quantum ground state of a kilogram-scale system-an interferometric gravitational wave detector. The detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) operate within a factor of 10 of the standard quantum limit (SQL), providing a displacement sensitivity of 10-18 m in a 100 Hz band centered on 150 Hz. With a new feedback strategy, we dynamically shift the resonant frequency of a 2.7 kg pendulum mode to lie within this optimal band, where its effective temperature falls as low as 1.4μK, and its occupation number reaches about 200 quanta. This work shows how the exquisite sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves can be made available to probe the validity of quantum mechanics on an enormous mass scale.

AB - We introduce a novel cooling technique capable of approaching the quantum ground state of a kilogram-scale system-an interferometric gravitational wave detector. The detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) operate within a factor of 10 of the standard quantum limit (SQL), providing a displacement sensitivity of 10-18 m in a 100 Hz band centered on 150 Hz. With a new feedback strategy, we dynamically shift the resonant frequency of a 2.7 kg pendulum mode to lie within this optimal band, where its effective temperature falls as low as 1.4μK, and its occupation number reaches about 200 quanta. This work shows how the exquisite sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves can be made available to probe the validity of quantum mechanics on an enormous mass scale.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=67949098859&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=67949098859&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032

DO - 10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - New Journal of Physics

JF - New Journal of Physics

SN - 1367-2630

M1 - 073032

ER -

Abbott B, Abbott R, Adhikari R, Ajith P, Allen B, Allen G et al. Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state. New Journal of Physics. 2009 Jul 16;11. 073032. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032