Observations of ferrite/austenite transformations in the heat affected zone of 2205 dupex stainless steel spot welds using time resolved X-ray diffraction

Todd Palmer, J. W. Elmer, S. S. Babu

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Abstract

Time resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) measurements are made in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) spot welds. Both the γ → δ and δ → γ transformations are monitored as a function of time during the rapid spot weld heating and cooling cycles. These observations are then correlated with calculated thermal cycles. Where the peak temperatures are highest (∼1342 °C), the γ → δ transformation proceeds to completion, leaving a ferritic microstructure at the end of heating. With lower peak temperatures, the γ → δ transformation proceeds to only partial completion, resulting in a microstructure containing both transformed and untransformed austenite. Further analyses of the individual diffraction patterns show shifts in the peak positions and peak widths as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, these changes in the peak characteristics are correlated with measured changes in the ferrite volume fraction. Such changes in the peak positions and widths during the γ → δ transformation provide an indication of changes occurring in each phase. These changes in peak properties can be correlated with the diffusion of nitrogen and other substitutional alloying elements, which are recognized as the primary mechanisms for this transformation. Upon cooling, the δ → γ transformation is observed to proceed from both the completely and partially transformed microstructural regions in the TRXRD data. An examination of the resulting microstructures confirms the TRXRD observation as the evidence shows that austenite both nucleates and grows from the ferritic microstructure at locations closest to the fusion zone boundary and grows from untransformed austenite grains at locations further from this boundary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307-321
Number of pages15
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A
Volume374
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2004

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spot welds
heat affected zone
Stainless Steel
Heat affected zone
austenite
Austenite
Ferrite
stainless steels
ferrites
Welds
Stainless steel
X ray diffraction
Microstructure
diffraction
x rays
microstructure
Cooling
Heating
Alloying elements
Temperature

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

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abstract = "Time resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) measurements are made in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) spot welds. Both the γ → δ and δ → γ transformations are monitored as a function of time during the rapid spot weld heating and cooling cycles. These observations are then correlated with calculated thermal cycles. Where the peak temperatures are highest (∼1342 °C), the γ → δ transformation proceeds to completion, leaving a ferritic microstructure at the end of heating. With lower peak temperatures, the γ → δ transformation proceeds to only partial completion, resulting in a microstructure containing both transformed and untransformed austenite. Further analyses of the individual diffraction patterns show shifts in the peak positions and peak widths as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, these changes in the peak characteristics are correlated with measured changes in the ferrite volume fraction. Such changes in the peak positions and widths during the γ → δ transformation provide an indication of changes occurring in each phase. These changes in peak properties can be correlated with the diffusion of nitrogen and other substitutional alloying elements, which are recognized as the primary mechanisms for this transformation. Upon cooling, the δ → γ transformation is observed to proceed from both the completely and partially transformed microstructural regions in the TRXRD data. An examination of the resulting microstructures confirms the TRXRD observation as the evidence shows that austenite both nucleates and grows from the ferritic microstructure at locations closest to the fusion zone boundary and grows from untransformed austenite grains at locations further from this boundary.",
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AU - Elmer, J. W.

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N2 - Time resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) measurements are made in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) spot welds. Both the γ → δ and δ → γ transformations are monitored as a function of time during the rapid spot weld heating and cooling cycles. These observations are then correlated with calculated thermal cycles. Where the peak temperatures are highest (∼1342 °C), the γ → δ transformation proceeds to completion, leaving a ferritic microstructure at the end of heating. With lower peak temperatures, the γ → δ transformation proceeds to only partial completion, resulting in a microstructure containing both transformed and untransformed austenite. Further analyses of the individual diffraction patterns show shifts in the peak positions and peak widths as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, these changes in the peak characteristics are correlated with measured changes in the ferrite volume fraction. Such changes in the peak positions and widths during the γ → δ transformation provide an indication of changes occurring in each phase. These changes in peak properties can be correlated with the diffusion of nitrogen and other substitutional alloying elements, which are recognized as the primary mechanisms for this transformation. Upon cooling, the δ → γ transformation is observed to proceed from both the completely and partially transformed microstructural regions in the TRXRD data. An examination of the resulting microstructures confirms the TRXRD observation as the evidence shows that austenite both nucleates and grows from the ferritic microstructure at locations closest to the fusion zone boundary and grows from untransformed austenite grains at locations further from this boundary.

AB - Time resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) measurements are made in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of 2205 duplex stainless steel (DSS) spot welds. Both the γ → δ and δ → γ transformations are monitored as a function of time during the rapid spot weld heating and cooling cycles. These observations are then correlated with calculated thermal cycles. Where the peak temperatures are highest (∼1342 °C), the γ → δ transformation proceeds to completion, leaving a ferritic microstructure at the end of heating. With lower peak temperatures, the γ → δ transformation proceeds to only partial completion, resulting in a microstructure containing both transformed and untransformed austenite. Further analyses of the individual diffraction patterns show shifts in the peak positions and peak widths as a function of both time and temperature. In addition, these changes in the peak characteristics are correlated with measured changes in the ferrite volume fraction. Such changes in the peak positions and widths during the γ → δ transformation provide an indication of changes occurring in each phase. These changes in peak properties can be correlated with the diffusion of nitrogen and other substitutional alloying elements, which are recognized as the primary mechanisms for this transformation. Upon cooling, the δ → γ transformation is observed to proceed from both the completely and partially transformed microstructural regions in the TRXRD data. An examination of the resulting microstructures confirms the TRXRD observation as the evidence shows that austenite both nucleates and grows from the ferritic microstructure at locations closest to the fusion zone boundary and grows from untransformed austenite grains at locations further from this boundary.

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