Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high/low - forage quality and high/low-concentrate diets

Patrick A. Topper, Robin Brandt, Arlene Adviento-Borbe, Gustavo J. Lascano, Arlyn Judson Heinrichs, Eileen Fabian

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

A heifer feeding trial evaluated the impact of high/low forage quality and high/low concentrate level nutrient-balanced diets on simultaneous odor and gas emissions from the manure. Gas concentration was determined using an infrared photoacoustic analyzer over a 24-hour period using a steady-state flux chamber setup containing urine:feces as-excreted from eight individual heifers. Odorous air samples were collected from chamber headspace and evaluated by six human assessors for pleasantness, intensity and detection threshold using a forced-choice dynamic olfactometer. Ammonia emission ranged from 0.64 to 3.94 mg NH3cm-2 d-1 across diets. Average ammonia emission from the low concentrate (80% forage) diets (2.11 mg NH3 cm-2 d-1) was larger than the high concentrate (20% forage) diets (1.69 mg NH3 cm-2 d-1), but not significantly different. Carbon dioxide emission was significantly higher (p= 0.0143) in the low concentrate diets. There was a linear increase of methane emission as reduced quality forage (corn stover) was increased in the low-concentrate diet (p = 0.030). Nitrous oxide emissions were similar and low in all diets. Highest average odor emission (8.58 OU m-2 sec -1) was from the low concentrate, high forage quality (80% corn silage) diet while lowest emission (5.01 OU m-2 sec-1) was measured when forage quality was reduced (32% silage; 48% stover). Odor emission tended to be reduced with lower quality forage diets, but with no significant difference. The volume of feces produced from the high concentrate diet was about half that from the low concentrate diet heifers. But total manure produced by the high concentrate diet heifers was 23% higher due to increased urine production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008
PublisherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
Pages6691-6702
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9781605605364
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008
EventAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008 - Providence, RI, United States
Duration: Jun 29 2008Jul 2 2008

Publication series

NameAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008
Volume11

Other

OtherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008
CountryUnited States
CityProvidence, RI
Period6/29/087/2/08

Fingerprint

gas emissions
dairy heifers
Manure
forage quality
concentrates
Gases
odors
Diet
diet
odor emissions
heifers
ammonia
Silage
Ammonia
Feces
Zea mays
Odorants
urine
feces
Urine

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Topper, P. A., Brandt, R., Adviento-Borbe, A., Lascano, G. J., Heinrichs, A. J., & Fabian, E. (2008). Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high/low - forage quality and high/low-concentrate diets. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008 (pp. 6691-6702). (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008; Vol. 11). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
Topper, Patrick A. ; Brandt, Robin ; Adviento-Borbe, Arlene ; Lascano, Gustavo J. ; Heinrichs, Arlyn Judson ; Fabian, Eileen. / Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high/low - forage quality and high/low-concentrate diets. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2008. pp. 6691-6702 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008).
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title = "Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high/low - forage quality and high/low-concentrate diets",
abstract = "A heifer feeding trial evaluated the impact of high/low forage quality and high/low concentrate level nutrient-balanced diets on simultaneous odor and gas emissions from the manure. Gas concentration was determined using an infrared photoacoustic analyzer over a 24-hour period using a steady-state flux chamber setup containing urine:feces as-excreted from eight individual heifers. Odorous air samples were collected from chamber headspace and evaluated by six human assessors for pleasantness, intensity and detection threshold using a forced-choice dynamic olfactometer. Ammonia emission ranged from 0.64 to 3.94 mg NH3cm-2 d-1 across diets. Average ammonia emission from the low concentrate (80{\%} forage) diets (2.11 mg NH3 cm-2 d-1) was larger than the high concentrate (20{\%} forage) diets (1.69 mg NH3 cm-2 d-1), but not significantly different. Carbon dioxide emission was significantly higher (p= 0.0143) in the low concentrate diets. There was a linear increase of methane emission as reduced quality forage (corn stover) was increased in the low-concentrate diet (p = 0.030). Nitrous oxide emissions were similar and low in all diets. Highest average odor emission (8.58 OU m-2 sec -1) was from the low concentrate, high forage quality (80{\%} corn silage) diet while lowest emission (5.01 OU m-2 sec-1) was measured when forage quality was reduced (32{\%} silage; 48{\%} stover). Odor emission tended to be reduced with lower quality forage diets, but with no significant difference. The volume of feces produced from the high concentrate diet was about half that from the low concentrate diet heifers. But total manure produced by the high concentrate diet heifers was 23{\%} higher due to increased urine production.",
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Topper, PA, Brandt, R, Adviento-Borbe, A, Lascano, GJ, Heinrichs, AJ & Fabian, E 2008, Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high/low - forage quality and high/low-concentrate diets. in American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008, vol. 11, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, pp. 6691-6702, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, Providence, RI, United States, 6/29/08.

Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high/low - forage quality and high/low-concentrate diets. / Topper, Patrick A.; Brandt, Robin; Adviento-Borbe, Arlene; Lascano, Gustavo J.; Heinrichs, Arlyn Judson; Fabian, Eileen.

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2008. p. 6691-6702 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008; Vol. 11).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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Topper PA, Brandt R, Adviento-Borbe A, Lascano GJ, Heinrichs AJ, Fabian E. Odor evaluation and gas emission from manure of dairy heifers fed high/low - forage quality and high/low-concentrate diets. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2008. p. 6691-6702. (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2008, ASABE 2008).