Off-axis jet scenario for early afterglow emission of low-luminosity gamma-ray burst GRB 190829A

Yuri Sato, Kaori Obayashi, Ryo Yamazaki, Kohta Murase, Yutaka Ohira

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Abstract

Recently, ground-based Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes have reported the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays from some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One of them, GRB 190829A, was triggered by the Swift satellite, and about 2 × 104 s after the burst onset the VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by H.E.S.S. with ∼5σ significance. This event had unusual features of having much smaller isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy than typical long GRBs and achromatic peaks in X-ray and optical afterglow at about 1.4 × 103 s. Here, we propose an off-axis jet scenario that explains these observational results. In this model, the relativistic beaming effect is responsible for the apparently small isotropic gamma-ray energy and spectral peak energy. Using a jetted afterglow model, we find that the narrow jet, which has the initial Lorentz factor of 350 and the initial jet opening half-angle of 0.015 rad, viewed off-axis can describe the observed achromatic behaviour in the X-ray and optical afterglow. Another wide, baryon-loaded jet is necessary for the later-epoch X-ray and radio emissions. According to our model, the VHE gamma rays observed by H.E.S.S. at 2 × 104 s may come from the narrow jet through the synchrotron self-Compton process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5647-5655
Number of pages9
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume504
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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