OBJECTIVE Large numbers of people with type 2 diabetes are obese. However, changes in cognition and related brain function in obese people with diabetes have not been characterized. Here, we investigated cognition, olfactory function, and odorinduced brain alterations in these patients and therapeutic effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1Ras) on their psychological behavior and olfactory networks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cognitive, olfactory, and odor-induced brain activation assessments were administered to 35 obese and 35 nonobese people with type 2 diabetes and 35 control subjects matched for age, sex, and education. Among them, 20 obese individuals with diabetes with inadequate glycemic control and metformin monotherapy received GLP-1Ra treatment for 3 months and were reassessed for metabolic, cognitive, olfactory, and neuroimaging changes. RESULTS Obese subjects with diabetes demonstrated lower general cognition and olfactory threshold scores, decreased left hippocampal activation, and disrupted seedbased functional connectivity with right insula compared with nonobese subjects with diabetes. Negative associations were found between adiposity and episodic memory and between fasting insulin and processing speed test time in diabetes. Mediation analyses showed that olfactory function and left hippocampus activation mediatedthese correlations. With3-month GLP-1Ra treatment, obese subjects with diabetes exhibited improved Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, olfactory test total score, and enhanced odor-induced right parahippocampus activation. CONCLUSIONS Obese subjects with type 2 diabetes showed impaired cognition and dysfunctional olfaction and brain networks, the latter of which mediated adiposity in cognitive impairment of diabetes. GLP-1Ras ameliorated cognitive and olfactory abnormalities in obese subjects with diabetes, providing new perspectives for early diagnosis and therapeutic approaches for cognitive decrements in these patients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing