Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States: National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014

Maranda Thompson, Nicholas Hein, Corrine Hanson, Lynette M. Smith, Ann Anderson-Berry, Chesney K. Richter, Karl Stessy Bisselou, Adams Kusi Appiah, Penny Kris-Etherton, Ann C. Skulas-Ray, Tara M. Nordgren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number177
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Nutrition Surveys
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
omega-3 fatty acids
pregnancy
Pregnancy
gender
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
eicosapentaenoic acid
docosahexaenoic acid
Fishes
pregnant women
Energy Intake
Pregnant Women
energy intake
fish
toddlers
Health
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Thompson, M., Hein, N., Hanson, C., Smith, L. M., Anderson-Berry, A., Richter, C. K., ... Nordgren, T. M. (2019). Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States: National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014. Nutrients, 11(1), [177]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177
Thompson, Maranda ; Hein, Nicholas ; Hanson, Corrine ; Smith, Lynette M. ; Anderson-Berry, Ann ; Richter, Chesney K. ; Bisselou, Karl Stessy ; Appiah, Adams Kusi ; Kris-Etherton, Penny ; Skulas-Ray, Ann C. ; Nordgren, Tara M. / Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States : National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014. In: Nutrients. 2019 ; Vol. 11, No. 1.
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abstract = "Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.",
author = "Maranda Thompson and Nicholas Hein and Corrine Hanson and Smith, {Lynette M.} and Ann Anderson-Berry and Richter, {Chesney K.} and Bisselou, {Karl Stessy} and Appiah, {Adams Kusi} and Penny Kris-Etherton and Skulas-Ray, {Ann C.} and Nordgren, {Tara M.}",
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Thompson, M, Hein, N, Hanson, C, Smith, LM, Anderson-Berry, A, Richter, CK, Bisselou, KS, Appiah, AK, Kris-Etherton, P, Skulas-Ray, AC & Nordgren, TM 2019, 'Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States: National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014', Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 1, 177. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010177

Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States : National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014. / Thompson, Maranda; Hein, Nicholas; Hanson, Corrine; Smith, Lynette M.; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Richter, Chesney K.; Bisselou, Karl Stessy; Appiah, Adams Kusi; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Nordgren, Tara M.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 1, 177, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Omega-3 fatty acid intake by age, gender, and pregnancy status in the United States

T2 - National health and nutrition examination survey 2003–2014

AU - Thompson, Maranda

AU - Hein, Nicholas

AU - Hanson, Corrine

AU - Smith, Lynette M.

AU - Anderson-Berry, Ann

AU - Richter, Chesney K.

AU - Bisselou, Karl Stessy

AU - Appiah, Adams Kusi

AU - Kris-Etherton, Penny

AU - Skulas-Ray, Ann C.

AU - Nordgren, Tara M.

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - Despite the importance of n-3 fatty acids for health, intakes remain below recommended levels. The objective of this study was to provide an updated assessment of fish and n-3 fatty acid intake (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and EPA+DHA) in the United States using the 2003–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (n = 45,347)). Over this survey period, toddlers, children, and adolescents (aged 1–19) had significantly lower n-3 fatty acid intake (p < 0.001) compared to adults and seniors, which remained significant after adjusting for caloric intake. Females demonstrated lower n-3 fatty acid intake than males (p < 0.001), with adult and senior women having significantly lower intakes compared to men in the same age categories (p < 0.001) after adjustment for energy intake. Women also consumed less fish than men (5.8 versus 6.1 servings/month, p < 0.001). The estimated intakes of n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women did not differ from non-pregnant women (p = 0.6 for EPA+DHA), although pregnant women reported consuming less high n-3 fatty acid-containing fish than non-pregnant women (1.8 versus 2.6 servings/month, p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that subgroups of the population may be at higher risk of n-3 fatty acid intakes below recommended levels.

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