Models of ice crystal vapor growth require estimates of the deposition coefficient a when surface attachment kinetics limit growth and when ice crystal shape is predicted. Parametric models can be used to calculate a for faceted growth as long as characteristic supersaturation schar values are known. However, previously published measurements of schar are limited to temperatures higher than -40°C. Estimates of schar at temperatures between -40° and -70°C are provided here through reanalysis of vapor growth data. The estimated schar follow the same functional temperature dependence as data taken at higher temperatures. Polynomial fits to schar are used as inputs to a parameterization of a suitable for use in cloud models. Comparisons of the parameterization with wind tunnel data show that growth at liquid saturation and constant temperatures between -3° and -20°C can be modeled by ledge nucleation for larger (hundreds of micrometers) crystals; however, comparisons with free-fall chamber data at -7°C suggest that dislocation growth may be required to model the vapor growth of small crystals (~20 μm) at liquid saturation. The comparisons with free-fall chamber data also show that the parameterization can reproduce the measured pressure dependence of aspect-ratio evolution. Comparisons with a hexagonal growth model indicate that aspect-ratio evolution based on the theory of Chen and Lamb produces unrealistically fast column growth near -7°C that is mitigated if a theory based on faceted growth is used. This result indicates that the growth hypothesis used in habit-evolving microphysical models needs to be revised when deposition coefficients are predicted.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science