On-orbit adjustment concepts for the Generation-X Observatory

Daniel A. Schwartz, Roger Brissenden, Mark Freeman, Terrance Gaetz, Paul Gorenstein, Diab Jerius, Michael Juda, Paul Reid, Scott Wolk, Timo Saha, William Zhang, Stephen O'Dell, Susan E. Trolier-McKinstry, Derek Wilke

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Generation-X is required to be an X-ray observatory with 50 m2 effective collecting area and 0.1 arcsec half-power diameter (HPD) angular resolution at 1 keV. It is conceived that a launch vehicle such as that studied for the Ares V will carry a monolithic 16-m-diameter mirror to the earth-sun L2 point. Even with such a vehicle, the reflectors comprising the ≈ 250 nested shells must be extremely light-weight. Therefore their figure and alignment cannot be achieved on the ground, and likely could not be maintained through the launch environment. We will present a conceptual solution to those constraints: adjustable X-ray optics, as a case of "adaptive" optics where the stability once in orbit should require adjustments no more frequently than yearly. The figure would be adjusted via thin-film actuators deposited directly to the back (non-reflecting) side of each element. This bi-morph configuration would impart in-plane strains via the piezoelectric or electrostrictive effect. Requirements of the adjustment are to the order of a few nanometer precision. Each shell, and each module, must also be aligned, to tolerances of about 0.1 micrometer. We conceive that on-orbit data would be acquired by a built-in Hartmann system for the alignment adjustments and low-order figure, and by ring profile measurements of a very bright celestial X-ray source to correct figure errors up to the mid-frequency range of several hundredths cycles mm -1 .

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdaptive X-Ray Optics
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 25 2010
EventAdaptive X-Ray Optics - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 3 2010Aug 5 2010

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume7803
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

Other

OtherAdaptive X-Ray Optics
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA
Period8/3/108/5/10

Fingerprint

Observatories
Observatory
Figure
observatories
Adjustment
Orbits
Orbit
adjusting
X ray optics
orbits
X rays
Adaptive optics
Launch vehicles
alignment
Sun
Shell
Mirrors
Alignment
x rays
Actuators

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Schwartz, D. A., Brissenden, R., Freeman, M., Gaetz, T., Gorenstein, P., Jerius, D., ... Wilke, D. (2010). On-orbit adjustment concepts for the Generation-X Observatory. In Adaptive X-Ray Optics [78030J] (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 7803). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.862353
Schwartz, Daniel A. ; Brissenden, Roger ; Freeman, Mark ; Gaetz, Terrance ; Gorenstein, Paul ; Jerius, Diab ; Juda, Michael ; Reid, Paul ; Wolk, Scott ; Saha, Timo ; Zhang, William ; O'Dell, Stephen ; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E. ; Wilke, Derek. / On-orbit adjustment concepts for the Generation-X Observatory. Adaptive X-Ray Optics. 2010. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering).
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abstract = "Generation-X is required to be an X-ray observatory with 50 m2 effective collecting area and 0.1 arcsec half-power diameter (HPD) angular resolution at 1 keV. It is conceived that a launch vehicle such as that studied for the Ares V will carry a monolithic 16-m-diameter mirror to the earth-sun L2 point. Even with such a vehicle, the reflectors comprising the ≈ 250 nested shells must be extremely light-weight. Therefore their figure and alignment cannot be achieved on the ground, and likely could not be maintained through the launch environment. We will present a conceptual solution to those constraints: adjustable X-ray optics, as a case of {"}adaptive{"} optics where the stability once in orbit should require adjustments no more frequently than yearly. The figure would be adjusted via thin-film actuators deposited directly to the back (non-reflecting) side of each element. This bi-morph configuration would impart in-plane strains via the piezoelectric or electrostrictive effect. Requirements of the adjustment are to the order of a few nanometer precision. Each shell, and each module, must also be aligned, to tolerances of about 0.1 micrometer. We conceive that on-orbit data would be acquired by a built-in Hartmann system for the alignment adjustments and low-order figure, and by ring profile measurements of a very bright celestial X-ray source to correct figure errors up to the mid-frequency range of several hundredths cycles mm -1 .",
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Schwartz, DA, Brissenden, R, Freeman, M, Gaetz, T, Gorenstein, P, Jerius, D, Juda, M, Reid, P, Wolk, S, Saha, T, Zhang, W, O'Dell, S, Trolier-McKinstry, SE & Wilke, D 2010, On-orbit adjustment concepts for the Generation-X Observatory. in Adaptive X-Ray Optics., 78030J, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 7803, Adaptive X-Ray Optics, San Diego, CA, United States, 8/3/10. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.862353

On-orbit adjustment concepts for the Generation-X Observatory. / Schwartz, Daniel A.; Brissenden, Roger; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Jerius, Diab; Juda, Michael; Reid, Paul; Wolk, Scott; Saha, Timo; Zhang, William; O'Dell, Stephen; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Wilke, Derek.

Adaptive X-Ray Optics. 2010. 78030J (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 7803).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

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AU - Gaetz, Terrance

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AU - Juda, Michael

AU - Reid, Paul

AU - Wolk, Scott

AU - Saha, Timo

AU - Zhang, William

AU - O'Dell, Stephen

AU - Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.

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N2 - Generation-X is required to be an X-ray observatory with 50 m2 effective collecting area and 0.1 arcsec half-power diameter (HPD) angular resolution at 1 keV. It is conceived that a launch vehicle such as that studied for the Ares V will carry a monolithic 16-m-diameter mirror to the earth-sun L2 point. Even with such a vehicle, the reflectors comprising the ≈ 250 nested shells must be extremely light-weight. Therefore their figure and alignment cannot be achieved on the ground, and likely could not be maintained through the launch environment. We will present a conceptual solution to those constraints: adjustable X-ray optics, as a case of "adaptive" optics where the stability once in orbit should require adjustments no more frequently than yearly. The figure would be adjusted via thin-film actuators deposited directly to the back (non-reflecting) side of each element. This bi-morph configuration would impart in-plane strains via the piezoelectric or electrostrictive effect. Requirements of the adjustment are to the order of a few nanometer precision. Each shell, and each module, must also be aligned, to tolerances of about 0.1 micrometer. We conceive that on-orbit data would be acquired by a built-in Hartmann system for the alignment adjustments and low-order figure, and by ring profile measurements of a very bright celestial X-ray source to correct figure errors up to the mid-frequency range of several hundredths cycles mm -1 .

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Schwartz DA, Brissenden R, Freeman M, Gaetz T, Gorenstein P, Jerius D et al. On-orbit adjustment concepts for the Generation-X Observatory. In Adaptive X-Ray Optics. 2010. 78030J. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.862353