On the Formation and Evolution of Cu-Ni-Rich Bridges of Alnico Alloys with Thermomagnetic Treatment

M. Fan, Y. Liu, Rajesh Jha, George S. Dulikravich, Justin Schwartz, C. C. Koch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite decades of research and development of Alnico alloys, significant uncertainties in the underlying structure-property relationships remain. Here, we report on the effects of Ti on the Alnico microstructure and nanostructure, and the corresponding influence on magnetic properties. We show that Ti fosters the conditions resulting in the formation of Cu-Ni-rich bridges in the α1 phases between the α-{2} phases. For Alnico containing Ti, a typical chessboardlike morphology with Cu-Ni-rich bridges is observed, whereas in the absence of Ti, the α1 phases connect to each other readily, especially with a high Co concentration, and a mazelike morphology with Cu-rich white-plate precipitates rather than Cu-rich bridges is observed. Furthermore, in Alnico containing Ti, an inhomogeneous distribution of Ni is found in the α 2 phases, including loops with high Ni concentration surrounding the α 1 phase and high concentrations in the bridges as well. An increase in the Cu concentration is also observed in the loops around the α 1 phases (Ni-Cu loops), and direct contact between the Cu-Ni-rich bridges and the Ni-Cu loops is observed in lieu of direct contact between the bridges and the α 1 phases. We also observe that the bridges are not perfectly round but ellipsoidal, with the long axis along the connection of two adjacent α 1 phases. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scans of the bridges shows that two types of Cu-Ni-rich bridges exist: those with more Cu than Ni and those with more Ni than Cu. A 3-D model is presented that explains the conditions and process of bridge formation, consistent with the observed composition distributions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7456278
JournalIEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Volume52
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016

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Precipitates
Nanostructures
Magnetic properties
Microstructure
Chemical analysis
Uncertainty
X-Ray Emission Spectrometry

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Fan, M. ; Liu, Y. ; Jha, Rajesh ; Dulikravich, George S. ; Schwartz, Justin ; Koch, C. C. / On the Formation and Evolution of Cu-Ni-Rich Bridges of Alnico Alloys with Thermomagnetic Treatment. In: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 2016 ; Vol. 52, No. 8.
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abstract = "Despite decades of research and development of Alnico alloys, significant uncertainties in the underlying structure-property relationships remain. Here, we report on the effects of Ti on the Alnico microstructure and nanostructure, and the corresponding influence on magnetic properties. We show that Ti fosters the conditions resulting in the formation of Cu-Ni-rich bridges in the α1 phases between the α-{2} phases. For Alnico containing Ti, a typical chessboardlike morphology with Cu-Ni-rich bridges is observed, whereas in the absence of Ti, the α1 phases connect to each other readily, especially with a high Co concentration, and a mazelike morphology with Cu-rich white-plate precipitates rather than Cu-rich bridges is observed. Furthermore, in Alnico containing Ti, an inhomogeneous distribution of Ni is found in the α 2 phases, including loops with high Ni concentration surrounding the α 1 phase and high concentrations in the bridges as well. An increase in the Cu concentration is also observed in the loops around the α 1 phases (Ni-Cu loops), and direct contact between the Cu-Ni-rich bridges and the Ni-Cu loops is observed in lieu of direct contact between the bridges and the α 1 phases. We also observe that the bridges are not perfectly round but ellipsoidal, with the long axis along the connection of two adjacent α 1 phases. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scans of the bridges shows that two types of Cu-Ni-rich bridges exist: those with more Cu than Ni and those with more Ni than Cu. A 3-D model is presented that explains the conditions and process of bridge formation, consistent with the observed composition distributions.",
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On the Formation and Evolution of Cu-Ni-Rich Bridges of Alnico Alloys with Thermomagnetic Treatment. / Fan, M.; Liu, Y.; Jha, Rajesh; Dulikravich, George S.; Schwartz, Justin; Koch, C. C.

In: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 52, No. 8, 7456278, 01.08.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - On the Formation and Evolution of Cu-Ni-Rich Bridges of Alnico Alloys with Thermomagnetic Treatment

AU - Fan, M.

AU - Liu, Y.

AU - Jha, Rajesh

AU - Dulikravich, George S.

AU - Schwartz, Justin

AU - Koch, C. C.

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AB - Despite decades of research and development of Alnico alloys, significant uncertainties in the underlying structure-property relationships remain. Here, we report on the effects of Ti on the Alnico microstructure and nanostructure, and the corresponding influence on magnetic properties. We show that Ti fosters the conditions resulting in the formation of Cu-Ni-rich bridges in the α1 phases between the α-{2} phases. For Alnico containing Ti, a typical chessboardlike morphology with Cu-Ni-rich bridges is observed, whereas in the absence of Ti, the α1 phases connect to each other readily, especially with a high Co concentration, and a mazelike morphology with Cu-rich white-plate precipitates rather than Cu-rich bridges is observed. Furthermore, in Alnico containing Ti, an inhomogeneous distribution of Ni is found in the α 2 phases, including loops with high Ni concentration surrounding the α 1 phase and high concentrations in the bridges as well. An increase in the Cu concentration is also observed in the loops around the α 1 phases (Ni-Cu loops), and direct contact between the Cu-Ni-rich bridges and the Ni-Cu loops is observed in lieu of direct contact between the bridges and the α 1 phases. We also observe that the bridges are not perfectly round but ellipsoidal, with the long axis along the connection of two adjacent α 1 phases. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scans of the bridges shows that two types of Cu-Ni-rich bridges exist: those with more Cu than Ni and those with more Ni than Cu. A 3-D model is presented that explains the conditions and process of bridge formation, consistent with the observed composition distributions.

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