Crackle is a phenomenon sometimes found in supersonic jet noise and can comprise an annoying and dominant part of the overall perceived noise. In the past, crackle has been commonly quantified by the skewness of the time waveform. In this investigation, a simulated waveform with a virtually identical probability density function and power spectrum as an actual F/A-18E afterburner recording has been created by nonlinearly transforming a statistically Gaussian waveform. Although the afterburner waveform crackles noticeably, playback of the non-Gaussian simulated waveform yields no perception of crackle at all, despite its relatively high skewness. Closer examination of the two waveforms reveals that although they have virtually identical statistics, there are considerable differences in their time rates of change in the intense compressive portions of the waveforms. The afterburner waveform is much more shocklike with its more rapid variations in pressure than the non-Gaussian simulated waveform. This results in a significant difference in the probability distributions of the time derivatives of the actual and simulated data and suggests that the perception of crackle in jet noise waveforms may be better quantified with statistics of the time derivative of the waveform, rather than by the skewness of the time waveform itself.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aerospace Engineering