On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

When a sounding tuning fork is brought close to the ear, and rotated about its long axis, four distinct maxima and minima are heard. However, when the same tuning fork is rotated while being held at arm's length from the ear only two maxima and minima are heard. Misconceptions concerning this phenomenon are addressed and the fundamental mode of the fork is described in terms of a linear quadrupole source. Measured directivity patterns in the near field and far field of several forks agree very well with theoretical predictions for a linear quadrupole. Other modes of vibration are shown to radiate as dipole and lateral quadrupole sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1139-1145
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Physics
Volume68
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2000

Fingerprint

forks
sound fields
tuning
quadrupoles
ear
directivity
sounding
far fields
vibration mode
near fields
dipoles
predictions

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

@article{4d9544dc27c743e69ef1b5720515d204,
title = "On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork",
abstract = "When a sounding tuning fork is brought close to the ear, and rotated about its long axis, four distinct maxima and minima are heard. However, when the same tuning fork is rotated while being held at arm's length from the ear only two maxima and minima are heard. Misconceptions concerning this phenomenon are addressed and the fundamental mode of the fork is described in terms of a linear quadrupole source. Measured directivity patterns in the near field and far field of several forks agree very well with theoretical predictions for a linear quadrupole. Other modes of vibration are shown to radiate as dipole and lateral quadrupole sources.",
author = "Russell, {Daniel A.}",
year = "2000",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1119/1.1286661",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "68",
pages = "1139--1145",
journal = "American Journal of Physics",
issn = "0002-9505",
publisher = "American Association of Physics Teachers",
number = "12",

}

On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork. / Russell, Daniel A.

In: American Journal of Physics, Vol. 68, No. 12, 12.2000, p. 1139-1145.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - On the sound field radiated by a tuning fork

AU - Russell, Daniel A.

PY - 2000/12

Y1 - 2000/12

N2 - When a sounding tuning fork is brought close to the ear, and rotated about its long axis, four distinct maxima and minima are heard. However, when the same tuning fork is rotated while being held at arm's length from the ear only two maxima and minima are heard. Misconceptions concerning this phenomenon are addressed and the fundamental mode of the fork is described in terms of a linear quadrupole source. Measured directivity patterns in the near field and far field of several forks agree very well with theoretical predictions for a linear quadrupole. Other modes of vibration are shown to radiate as dipole and lateral quadrupole sources.

AB - When a sounding tuning fork is brought close to the ear, and rotated about its long axis, four distinct maxima and minima are heard. However, when the same tuning fork is rotated while being held at arm's length from the ear only two maxima and minima are heard. Misconceptions concerning this phenomenon are addressed and the fundamental mode of the fork is described in terms of a linear quadrupole source. Measured directivity patterns in the near field and far field of several forks agree very well with theoretical predictions for a linear quadrupole. Other modes of vibration are shown to radiate as dipole and lateral quadrupole sources.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034362697&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034362697&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1119/1.1286661

DO - 10.1119/1.1286661

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0034362697

VL - 68

SP - 1139

EP - 1145

JO - American Journal of Physics

JF - American Journal of Physics

SN - 0002-9505

IS - 12

ER -