Reducing risk from pesticide applications has been gaining serious attention in the last few decades due to the significant damage to human health, environment, and ecosystems. Pesticide applications are an essential part of current agriculture, enhancing cultivated crop productivity and quality and preventing losses of up to 45% of the world food supply. However, inappropriate and excessive use of pesticides is a major rising concern. Precision spraying addresses these concerns by precisely and efficiently applying pesticides to the target area and substantially reducing pesticide usage while maintaining efficacy at preventing crop losses. This review provides a systematic summary of current technologies used for precision spraying in tree fruits and highlights their potential, briefly discusses factors affecting spraying parameters, and concludes with possible solutions to reduce excessive agrochemical uses. We conclude there is a critical need for appropriate sensing techniques that can accurately detect the target. In addition, air jet velocity, travel speed, wind speed and direction, droplet size, and canopy characteristics need to be considered for successful droplet deposition by the spraying system. Assessment of terrain is important when field elevation has significant variability. Control of airflow during spraying is another important parameter that needs to be considered. Incorporation of these variables in precision spraying systems will optimize spray decisions and help reduce excessive agrochemical applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Information Systems
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering