A conceptual study was conducted towards a new design for more efficient fuel conversion and CO2 capture in a future 500 MWe power plant that incorporates both new conversion technologies to optimize plant efficiency and new carbon dioxide (CO2) capture methods. Conventional means of power generation without CO2 capture (e.g., air-fired pulverized coal combustion and fluidized bed combustion) formed base cases to evaluate advanced combustion technologies with CO2 capture. The following capture schemes were investigated: 1) Pre-combustion decarbonization consisting of gasification or reforming processes with CO2 separation membranes; 2) Denitrogenation methods such as oxycombustion and chemical looping combustion; 3) Post-combustion CO2 recovery using solvent absorption, membrane separation and solid adsorption. Evaluations were based on: 1) Efficiency of electricity generation; 2) Fuel consumption and CO2 emitted per unit electricity; 3) Feasibility of scaleup; and 4) Energy penalty associated with capture. Both the methods of CO2 capture and the technology of energy conversion were found to influence the overall plant efficiency and amount of CO2 that can be captured. Advanced combustion technologies enable the production of concentrated CO2 emission streams, but involve complex process designs. Gasification-based processes and chemical looping combustion emerged as efficient options for future coal-based power plants. These power generation technologies were integrated with selected CO2 capture technologies to recover a high percentage of the CO2 produced (> 90%) while maintaining reasonable power generation efficiency (> 35%). The integrated combinations were optimized with respect to net power generation efficiency, fraction of CO2 captured, and scale-up considerations. An optimized design balancing those parameters and scale is presented as a solution for a coal-based 500 MWe power plant.